Appendix Table 5A2 continued

Unmanaged (Grassland)1 Goods Service and Services Rank Biotic Abiotic

Habitat provision

Waste disposal/ bioremediation

*** decomposition, nutrient cycling, bioturbation, resistance to pests and diseases, biota providing food resources and habitat

*** decomposition of brewery waste and sewage sludge

* soil type, topography, fire, precipitation

* compounds binding to humic material and clays

Perturbations

Invasive Species: Plant Species2

Vulnerability Impact

Climate Change: Drought3

Vulnerability Impact

Land-Use Change: To Arable Land

Vulnerability Lmpact

indirect and subtle effects on soil food web, altering habitat structure]

l18 [change in vegetation structure, shift in taxa due to drought leading to increased small mammals and predatory bird populations]

3 [shift to a relatively homogeneous habitat, change from fungal to bacterial-based food web, removal of native plants]

1 [unpalatable species, indirect and subtle effects on soil food web altering ability of microflora to degrade organic compounds]

— / 0 / 2 [increased + heavy metal concentration, decreased decomposition rates]

3 [increased accumulation of heavy metals from sewage sludge applications]

*** native

* soil type

1 [individual

soil pathogens

plant species

and predators

may influence

may inhibit the

soil communities,

rapid spread of

activity, and/or

exotic and rud-

function21]

eral plant species

** organic

** climate,

0-1 [may

matter, bacteria,

parent material,

exert strong

fungi, roots,

topography,

impacts on

invertebrate

erosion

soil biota]

fecal pellets,

invertebrate22

engineering23

organic matter,

*** climate,

0-2 [may

microbial

soil texture,

influence soil

activity,

topography,

biota or be a

microbial root

pH, dry and

novel nitrogen

symbionts,

wet deposition

fixer]

invertebrate

of nitrogen

microbial

and sulfur

grazers

"the

** climate,

0-2 [altering

presence of

physical and

soil physical and/

plants can

chemical soil

or chemical

influence the

heterogeneity

properties,

community

facilitate

composition

persistence of

of soil biota28;

exotic

plant species can

invertebrates30]

influence soil

microbial

physiological

attributes29

climate may in soil pathogen positively or richness]

negatively impact native soil community]

2 [decreased plant and soil biota activity]

structure due to plowing, compaction, increased salinity, decreased fungal biomass, simplified soil food web] 3 [shift from a -/+27 fungal to bacterial-based food web, simplified soil food web, additions of inorganic fertilizers]

plant inputs into web, decreased soil, low soil soil structure, moisture] increased soil salinity, limited plant input into soil due to harvesting, relatively homogeneous plant community, biocides and GMOs influencing non-target soil taxa32]

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