The "service rank" (range —3 to +3) indicates the importance of the ecosystem under consideration (arable, tilled) in providing each ecosystem good and service; positive and negative values indicate positive and negative effects, respectively, of the ecosystem in providing that good or service. The importance of "biotic" and "abiotic" factors in providing each good or service ranges from unimportant (designated by *) to highly important (***). "Vulnerability" scores (range 0 to 3) relate to the vulnerability of each good or service provided by the ecosystem to each perturbation, greater values indicate greater vulnerability; text in brackets explains vulnerability score. "Net impact" refers to the direction of change in the ability of the ecosystem to provide each good or service after perturbation, and is scored as — (reduction), 0 (no change), or + (increase).
Unmanaged (Arable Tilled)1
Invasive Species: Root Parasites2
Climate Change: Drought3
Goods and Services
Vulnerability Impact Vulnerability Impact
Land-Use Change: To Forest
Food production 3
** plant breeding, roots and residues
*** climate, 3 [can lead tillage, soil to destruction type, fertilizer of crop]
*** topography; leaching; NH4 volatilization
2 [increased application of pesticides negatively impacts water quality.]
3 [abiotic controls, especially soil properties and fallow practices, most important; reduced NPP; drought-resistant plant breeds important5]
0 [service is effectively cancelled.]
0 [litter system 0
developed; annual roots replaced by perennial; increased role for soil food web; change from bacterial to fungal-based food web6]
0 [improvement in + quality through restoration of ecosystem engineering communities and creation of biogenic structures]
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