Appendix Table 5A1 Vulnerability of ecosystem goods and services in arable tilled ecosystems provided by the soil biota to three agents of global change invasive species climate change and landuse change

The "service rank" (range —3 to +3) indicates the importance of the ecosystem under consideration (arable, tilled) in providing each ecosystem good and service; positive and negative values indicate positive and negative effects, respectively, of the ecosystem in providing that good or service. The importance of "biotic" and "abiotic" factors in providing each good or service ranges from unimportant (designated by *) to highly important (***). "Vulnerability" scores (range 0 to 3) relate to the vulnerability of each good or service provided by the ecosystem to each perturbation, greater values indicate greater vulnerability; text in brackets explains vulnerability score. "Net impact" refers to the direction of change in the ability of the ecosystem to provide each good or service after perturbation, and is scored as — (reduction), 0 (no change), or + (increase).

Perturbations

Unmanaged (Arable Tilled)1

Invasive Species: Root Parasites2

Climate Change: Drought3

Goods and Services

Service Rank

Biotic

Abiotic

Net Net

Vulnerability Impact Vulnerability Impact

Land-Use Change: To Forest

Vulnerability Impact

Food production 3

** plant breeding, roots and residues

*** climate, 3 [can lead tillage, soil to destruction type, fertilizer of crop]

Water quality

* nitrification;

pesticide degradation

*** topography; leaching; NH4 volatilization

2 [increased application of pesticides negatively impacts water quality.]

3 [abiotic controls, especially soil properties and fallow practices, most important; reduced NPP; drought-resistant plant breeds important5]

0 [service is effectively cancelled.]

0 [litter system 0

developed; annual roots replaced by perennial; increased role for soil food web; change from bacterial to fungal-based food web6]

0 [improvement in + quality through restoration of ecosystem engineering communities and creation of biogenic structures]

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