Micro Patch Habitat Ecosystem Landscape Region

Spatial scales of functional groups in freshwater systems. Furthermore, although terminologies vary between domains, there is a degree of consistency in function of the groupings. A set of 15 common functional groups may occur in soil, freshwater, and or sediment environments, representing a wide variety of major taxonomic groups (Table 8.1). Each functional group includes a variable number of species, from one species to relatively species-rich phylogenetic clades (Brussaard et al....

Of the Underlying Processes in Soils

The complete destruction of the community of soil organisms for example, due to erosion results in obvious loss of soil ecosystem functions. Far less is known about the consequences of the loss of soil biodiversity for the sustainable delivery of ecosystem goods and services (Wall et al. 2001). Results from empirical studies on the relation between soil biodiversity and ecosystem functions range from positive to neutral or even negative (Mikola et al. 2002). However, it is obvious that soil...

SCOPE Series List

SCOPE SCOPE SCOPE SCOPE SCOPE SCOPE SCOPE SCOPE SCOPE SCOPE SCOPE SCOPE SCOPE SCOPE SCOPE 1 59 Now out of print. Selected titles from this series can be downloaded free of charge from the SCOPE Web site (http www.icsu-scope.org). 1 Global Environment Monitoring, 1971, 68 pp 2 Man-made Lakes as Modified Ecosystems, 1972, 76 pp 3 Global Environmental Monitoring Systems (GEMS) Action Plan for Phase I 1973, 132 pp 4 Environmental Sciences in Developing Countries, 1974, 72 pp 5 Environmental Impact...

Importance of Freshwater Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity

Ecosystem services in fresh waters depend on a range of different benthic species (Tables 3.1a-3.1e). For example, fish and shellfish yields depend heavily on sustained production of diverse benthic prey species (Huner 1995 New & Valenti 2000). Although only a few of the 390 species of crayfish native to North America are harvested for food, other crayfish species play major roles in ecosystem dynamics by linking sedimentary habitats with overlying waters through burrowing and mixing of...

Estuarine and Continental Shelf Sediments

Approximately 39 percent of the global human population, or approximately 2.2 billion people, lived within 100 km of the coast in 1995, most within estuarine watersheds (Burke et al. 2001). In countries such as the United States, coastal populations have increased faster than the overall population (Beach 2002). Historically, human populations have depended on estuaries for food (e.g., fish and shellfish), transportation, trade (e.g., waterways, sheltered ports), and recreation. Ancient...

Literature Cited

Functional attributes of biodiversity in land use systems. In Soil Resilience and Sustainable Land Use, edited by D.J. Greenland and I. Szabolcs, pp. 267-290. Wallingford, UK, CAB International. Anderson, J.M. 2000. Food web functioning and ecosystem processes Problems and perceptions of scaling. In Invertebrates as Webmasters in Ecosystems, edited by D.C. Coleman and P.F. Hendrix, pp. 3-24. Wallingford, UK, CAB International. Baas, W.J. 1989. Secondary plant compounds,...

Table 42a The provisioning of goods and services for estuaries

We have used a qualitative ranking scale from 3 to +3 to compare the relative importance of a given good or service (Rank) within estuaries. Negative scores denote situations where sedimentary fauna can negatively influence a good or process (e.g., remobilizing pollutants into the environment). We have also estimated the relative importance of species, functional, and habitat diversity in the delivery of a given good or service (Diversity Importance) using a relative scale from 0 to 3. These...

Wetland Protection to Preserve Biodiversity and to Enhance Food Production and Recreation The Pantanal of South America

This enormous tropical wetland, the Pantanal of South America, is approximately the size of the state of Florida and is the fourth largest complex of wetland ecosystems in the world (Keddy 2000). Its basin covers approximately 138,000 km2 in Brazil and 100,000 km2 in Bolivia and Paraguay. It consists of numerous streams, lakes, and seasonally flooded swamps. The basin receives inflows from several large rivers (e.g., Rio Paraguay, Rio Petras, Rio Cuiaba) that flow southward to join the Rio...

Discussion and Conclusions

Soil organisms play a major role in the delivery of ecosystem goods and services that are crucial for supporting human societies and for the sustainability of natural and managed ecosystems. Soil organisms act on very small scales, but their effects may range from local (diseased plants, nutrient mineralization) to very large scales (plant succession, carbon sequestration, production of trace gases that contribute to global warming). The diversity of soil organisms may matter more for a process...

Marine Sedimentary Biota as Providers of Ecosystem Goods and Services

Snelgrove, Lisa A. Levin, Melanie C. Austen, Ronald T. Kneib,Thomas M. Iliffe, James R. Garey, Stephen J. Hawkins, and Robert B.Whitlatch Marine sediments cover more of the Earth's surface than all other ecosystems combined (Snelgrove 1999), yet direct human experience is limited largely to the narrow zone at the interface between land and sea. Although 62 percent of the Earth's surface is covered by water greater than 1,000 m deep, only approximately 2 km2...

Nutrient Cycling and Productivity of Lakes Lake Mendota Wisconsin United States

Lakes are used for a variety of ecosystem services, but because of their enclosed nature and the slow turnover of their water, they are often susceptible to a variety of threats, among them the loss of ecosystem services and resulting disservices. Eutrophication, for instance, results in rapid growth of blue-green algae, which affect tastes and odors of drinking water. Algal blooms disrupt filtration processes during water abstraction and can be toxic, which may affect drinking water for...

Extrinsic and Intrinsic Determinants of Vulnerability

Soil organisms vary considerably in their susceptibility to global change, and even the same taxonomic and or functional group may vary in its response according to the nature, extent, and frequency and intensity of perturbation (Wall et al. 2001). Thus, the vulnerability of individual components of the soil fauna is context dependent. Determinants of vulnerability are wide ranging, encompassing both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Many of these are intuitive, and empirical assessments of...

Types of Freshwater Ecosystem Services

The goods and services provided to humans by freshwater benthic ecosystems may be classed as provisioning services, or products obtained from ecosystems, such as plant and animal food and fiber supporting services, or services necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services, such as waste processing, the production of a sustained clean water supply, flood abatement, and climate moderation and cultural services, or nonmaterial benefits obtained from ecosystems, such as aesthetics,...

Ecosystem Services Provided by Freshwater Benthos

Ewel, Robert O. Hall, Jr., Paul S. Giller, Willem Goedkoop, and David M. Merritt The concept of ecosystem goods and services (Daily 1997 Heal 2000 Brismar 2002) conveys how natural processes such as biomass production and nutrient cycling are essential to the Earth's capacity for sustaining human populations. Here we examine how species diversity and ecosystem processes, which supply these goods and services to human societies, are mediated by sediment- or...

SCOPE Soil and Sediment Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning Ssbef Committee Publications

Biodiversity above and below the surface of soils and sediments Linkages and implications for global change. BioScience 50 1043 1048. Adams, G.A., D.H. Wall, and A.P Covich. 1999. Linkages between below-surface and above-surface biodiversity. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 80 200 204. Austen, M.C., PJ.D. Lambshead, PA. Hutchings, G. Boucher, P.V.R. Snelgrove, C. Heip, G. King, I. Koike, and C. Smith. 2002. Biodiversity links above and below the...

Cascading Effects of Deforestation on Ecosystem Services Across Soils and Freshwater and Marine Sediments

Levin, Ronald T. Kneib, Robert O. Hall, Jr., Jan Marcin Weslawski, Richard D. Bardgett, David A. Wardle, Diana H. Wall, Wim H. van der Putten, and Holley Zadeh The full assessment of the impacts of ecosystem management and disturbances on the provision of ecosystem services would be a comparatively simple process if ecosystems were totally self-contained and independent. Simple monitoring, observation, and assessment within a system would inform us of the implications of...

Interaction of Threats and Ecosystem Disservices

There is frequently a trade-off between ecological and economic values associated with ecosystem services (see Covich et al., Chapter 3). In this context, the interconnections between services and threats provide an introduction to the concept of disservices. Exploiting one service can negatively affect, or in extreme cases completely eliminate, Figure 6.2. Conceptual diagram illustrating a disservice for humans, through the potential negative effect of implementation of management on an...