Alonso, C. (1997). Choosing a place to grow. Importance of within-plant abiotic microenvironment for Yponomeuta mahalabella. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 83:171-180.
Anderson, C., and McShea, D.W. (2001). Intermediate-level parts in insect societies: Adaptive structures that ants build away from the nest. Insectes Sociaux 48:291-301.
Atlegrim, O. (1989). Exclusion of birds from bilberry stands: Impact on insect larval density and damage to the bilberry. Oecologia 79:136-139.
-. (1992). Mechanisms regulating bird predation on a herbivorous larva guild in boreal coniferous forests. Ecography 15:19-24.
Bailey, J.K., and Whitham, T.G. (2003). Interactions among elk, aspen, galling sawflies, and insectivorous birds. Oikos 101:127-134.
Baker, W.L. (1972). Eastern Forest Insects. Washington, D.C.: USDA Forest Service.
Barosela, J.R. (1999). Herbivoria foliar em Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. de tres fisionomias de Cerrado e sua relagao com o teor de taninos, valor nutritivo e entomofauna asociada. Dissertasgao de maestrado, Universidade Federal, Sao Carlos.
Bastian, R.A., and Hart, E.R. (1991). Temperature effects on developmental parameters of the mimosa webworm (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae). Environmental Entomology 20:1141-1148.
Beckwith, R.C. (1973). The Large Aspen Tortrix. Washington, D.C.: USDA Forest Service.
Benrey, B., and Denno, R.F. (1997). The slow-growth-high-mortality hypothesis: A test using the cabbage butterfly. Ecology 78, 987-999.
Berenbaum, M.R. (1978). Toxicity of a furanocoumarin to armyworms: A case of biosynthetic escape from insect herbivores. Science 201:532-534.
-. (1999). Shelter-making caterpillars: Rolling their own. Wings 22:7-10.
Berenbaum, M., Green, E., and Zangerl, A.R. (1993). Web costs and web defense in the parsnip webworm (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae). Environmental Entomology 22:791-795.
Bernays, E.A. (1997). Feeding by lepidopteran larvae is dangerous. Ecological Entomology 22:121-123.
Capinera, J.L., Renaud, A.R., and Naranjo, S.E. (1981). Alfalfa webworm Loxostege commixtalis foliage consumption and host preference. Southwestern Entomologist 6:18-22.
Cappuccino, N. (1993). Mutual use of leaf shelters by lepidopteran larvae on birch. Ecological Entomology 18:287-292.
Cappuccino, N., and Martin, M.-A. (1994). Eliminating early-season leaf-tiers of paper birch reduced abundance of mid-summer species. Ecological Entomology 19:399-401.
Carmona, A.S., and Barbosa, P. (1983). Overwintering egg mass adaptations of the eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 9:68-74.
Carne, P.B. (1969). On the population dynamics of the Eucalypt-defoliating sawfly Perga affinis Kirby (Hymenoptera). Australian Journal of Zoology 17:113-141.
Carroll, M.R., and Kearby, W.H. (1978). Microlepidopterous oak leaftiers (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea) in central Missouri. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 51:457-471.
Carroll, M.R., Wooster, M.T., Kearby, W.H., and Allen, D.C. (1979). Biological observations on three oak leaftiers: Psilocorsisquercicella, P. reflexella, and P. cryptolechiella in Massachusetts and Missouri. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 72:441-447.
Castilla, J.C., Lagos, N.A., and Cerda, M. (2004). Marine ecosystem engineering by the alien ascidian Pyura praeputialis on a mid-intertidal rocky shore. Marine Ecology Progress Series 268:119-130.
Champagne, D.E., Arnason, J.T., Philogene, B.J.R., Morand, P., and Lam, J. (1996). Light-mediated allelochemical effects of naturally occurring polyacetylenes and thiophenes from Asteraceae on herbivorous insects. Journal of Chemical Ecology 12:835-858.
Clancy, K.M., and Price, P.W. (1987). Rapid herbivore growth enhances enemy attack: Sublethal plant defenses remain a paradox. Ecology 68:733-737.
Coley, P.D., and Barone, J.A. (1996). Herbivory and plant defenses in tropical forests. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 27:305-335.
Coley, P.D., Bryant, J.P., and Chapine, F.S., III. (1985). Resource availability and plant anti-herbivore defense. Science 230:895-899.
Conway, B.E., McCullough, D.G., and Leefers, L.A. (1999). Long-term effects of jack pine budworm outbreaks on the growth of jack pine trees in Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Restoration 29:1510-1517.
Costa, A.A., and Varanda, E.M. (2002). Building of leaf shelters by Stenoma scitiorella Walker (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae): Manipulation of host plant quality. Neotropical Entomology 31:537-540.
Costa, J.T. (1997). Caterpillars as social insects. American Scientist 85:150-159.
Crutsinger, G.M., and Sanders, N.J. (2005). Aphid-tending ants affect secondary users in leaf shelters and rates of herbivory on Salix hookeriana in a coastal dune habitat. American Midland Naturalist 154:296-304.
Damman, H. (1987). Leaf quality and enemy avoidance by the larvae of a pyralid moth. Ecology 68:88-97.
-. (1993). Patterns of interaction among herbivore species. In Caterpillars: Ecological and Evolutionary Constraints on Foraging, N.E. Stamp and T.M. Casey, Eds. New York: Chapman and Hall, pp. 132-169.
Danks, H.V. (2002). Modification of adverse conditions by insects. Oikos 99:10-24.
Danthanarayana, W. (1983). Population ecology of the light brown apple moth, Epi-phyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Journal of Animal Ecology 52:1-33.
Darling, D.C., Schroeder, F.C., Meinwald, F., Eisner, M., and Eisner, T. (2001). Production of a cyanogenic secretion by a thyridid caterpillar (Calindoea trifascialis, Thy-rididae, Lepidoptera). Naturwissenschaften 88:306-309.
Diniz, I.R., and Morais, H.C. (1997). Lepidopteran caterpillar fauna of cerrado host plants. Biodiversity and Conservation 6:817-836.
Dixon, P.L., and Carl, K. (2002). Croesia curvalana (Kearfott), blueberry leaftier (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). In Biological Control Programmes in Canada, 1981-2000, P.T. Mason and J.T. Huber, Eds. New York: CABI, pp. 87-89.
Dorn, N.J., Cronin, G., and Lodge, D.M. (2001). Feeding preferences and performance of an aquatic lepidopteran on macrophytes: Plant hosts as food and habitat. Oecologia 128:406-415.
Douglas, S.M., and Cowles, R.S. (2006). Plant Pest Handbook: A Guide to Insects, Diseases, and Other Disorders Affecting Plants. The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. Available at http://www.caes.state.ct.us/PlantPestHandbookFiles/ pphlntroductory/pphfront.htm.
Dreistadt, S.H., Clark, J.K., and Flint, M.L. (1994). Pests of Landscape Trees and Shrubs: An Integrated Pest Management Guide. (Publication 2259.) Oakland, CA: University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources.
Dudt, J.F., and Shure, D.J. (1994). The influence of light and nutrients on foliar phenolics and insect herbivory. Ecology 75:86-98.
Dussourd, D.E. (1993). Foraging with finesse: Caterpillar adaptations for circumventing plant defenses. In Caterpillars: Ecological and Evolutionary Constraints on Foraging, N.E. Stamp and T.M. Casey, Eds. New York: Chapman and Hall, pp. 92-131.
Edwards, P.J., and Wratten, S.D. (1983). Wound induced defenses in plants and their consequences for patterns of insect grazing. Oecologia 59:88-93.
Eubanks, M.D., Nesci, K.A., Petersen, M.K., Liu, Z., and Sanchez, H.B. (1997). The exploitation of an ant-defended host-plant by a shelter-building herbivore. Oeco-logia 109:454-460.
Feeny, P. (1970). Seasonal changes in oak leaf tannins and nutrients as a cause of spring feeding by winter moth caterpillars. Ecology 51:565-581.
Fernandes, G.W., and Price, P.W. (1992). The adaptive significance of insect gall distribution: Survivorship of species in xeric and mesic habitats. Oecologia 90:14-20.
Fitzgerald, T.D. (1995). The Tent Caterpillars. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Fitzgerald, R.D., and Underwood, D.L.A. (2000). Winter foraging patterns and voluntary hypothermia in the social caterpillar Eucheira socialis. Ecological Entomology 25:35-44.
Fletcher, L.E., Yack, J.E., Fitzgerald, R.D., and Hoy, R.R. (2006). Vibrational communication in the cherry leaf roller caterpillar Caloptilia serotinella (Gracillarioidea: Gracillariidae). Journal of Insect Behavior 19:1-18.
Forkner, R.E., Marquis, R.J., and Lill, J.T. (2004). Feeny revisited: Condensed tannins as anti-herbivore defences in leaf-chewing herbivore communities of Quercus. Ecological Entomology 29:174-187.
Forkner, R.E., Marquis, R.J., Lill, J.T., and Le Corff, J. (2006). Impacts of alternative timber harvest practices on leaf-chewing herbivores of oak. Conservation Biology 20:429-440.
Fournier, V., Rosenheim, J.A., Brodeur, J., Laney, L.O., and Johnson, M.W. (2003). Herbivorous mites as ecological engineers: Indirect effects on arthropods inhabiting papaya foliage. Oecologia 135:442-450.
Fowler, S.V., and MacGarvin, M. (1985). The impact of hairy wood ants, Formica lugbris, on the guild structure of herbivorous insects on birch, Betula pubescens. Journal of Animal Ecology 54:847-855.
Fraenkel, G., and Fallil, F. (1981). Spinning (stitching) behavior of the rice leaf-folder, Cnaphalocrosis medinalis. Entomología Experimentalis et Applicata 29:138-146.
Fukui, A. (2001). Indirect interactions mediated by leaf shelters in animal-plant communities. Population Ecology 43:31-40.
Fukui, A., Murakami, M., Konno, K., Nakamura, M., and Ohgushi, T. (2002). A leaf-rolling caterpillar improves leaf quality. Entomological Science 5:263-266.
Furniss, R.L., and Carolin, V.M. (1977). Western forest insects. In Miscellaneous Publication 1339. Washington, D.C.: United States Forest Service.
Gaston, K.J., Reavey, D., and Valladares, G.R. (1992). Intimacy and fidelity: Internal and external feeding by the British microlepidoptera. Ecological Entomology 17:86-88.
Greenberg, R. (1987). Development of dead leaf foraging in a tropical migrant warbler. Ecology 68:130-141.
Gross, P. (1993). Insect behavioral and morphological defenses against parasitoids. Annual Review of Entomology 38:251-273.
Grossmueller, D.W., and Lederhouse, R.C. (1985). Oviposition site selection: An aid to rapid growth and development in the tiger swallowtail butterfly, Papilio glaucus. Oecologia 66:68-73.
Gurney, W.S.C., and Lawton, J.H. (1996). The population dynamics of ecosystem engineers. Oikos 76:273-283.
Hajek, A.E., and Dahlsten, D.L. (1986). Coexistence of three species of leaf-feeding aphids (Homoptera) on Betula pendula. Oecologia 68:380-386.
Hawkins, B.A., and Sheehan, W. (1994). Parasitoid Community Ecology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Heads, P.A., and Lawton, J.H. (1985). Bracken, ants, and extrafloral nectaries. III. How insect herbivores avoid ant predation. Ecological Entomology 10:29-42.
Heinrich, B. (1979). Foraging strategies of caterpillars: Leaf damage and possible predator avoidance strategies. Oecologia 42:325-337.
Heinrich, B., and Collins, S.L. (1983). Caterpillar leaf damage and the game of hide and seek with birds. Ecology 64:592-602.
Hensen, W.R. (1958a). The effects of radiation on the habitat temperatures of some poplar-inhabiting insects. Canadian Journal of Zoology 36:463-478.
-. (1958b). Some ecological implications of the leaf-rolling habit in Compsolechia niveopulvella Chamb. Canadian Journal of Zoology 36:809-819.
Hertel, G.D., and Benjamin, D.M. (1979). Biology of the pine webworm Tetralopha robustella in Florida USA slash pine Pinus elliottii var. elliottii plantations. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 72:816-819.
Horsley, S.B., Long, R.P., Bailey, S.W., Hallett, R.A., and Wargo, P.M. (2002). Health of eastern North American sugar maple forests and factors affecting decline. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 19:34-44.
Hunter, M.D. (1987). Opposing effects of spring defoliation on late season oak caterpillars. Ecological Entomology 12:373-382.
Hunter, M.D., and Willmer, P.G. (1989). The potential for interspecific competition between two abundant defoliators on oak: Leaf damage and habitat quality. Ecol. Entomology 14:267-277.
Ide, J.-Y. (2004). Leaf trenching by Indian red admiral caterpillars for feeding and shelter construction. Population Ecology 46:275-280.
Ives, W.G.H., and Wong, H.R. (1988). Trees and Shrub Insects of the Prairie Provinces. Edmonton: Canadian Forestry Service.
Janzen, D.H. (1988). Ecological characterization of a Costa Rican dry forest caterpillar fauna. Biotropica 20:120-135.
Jeffries, M.J., and Lawton, J.H. (1984). Enemy-free space and the structure of ecological communities. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 23:269-286.
Jones, C.G., Brodersen, H., Czerwinski, E.J., Evans, H.J. and Keizer, A.J. (1996). Results of Forest Insect and Disease Surveys in the Northeast Region of Ontario, 1995. Canadian Forest Service Information Report O-X I-VIII, pp. 1-27.
Jones, C.G., Lawton, J.H., and Shachak, M. (1994). Organisms as ecosystem engineers. Oikos 69:373-386.
-. (1997). Positive and negative effects of organisms as ecosystem engineers.
Jones, M.T. (1999). Leaf shelter-building and frass ejection behavior in larvae of Epar-gyreus clarus (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), the silver-spotted skipper. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University, M.S. thesis.
Jones, M.T., Castellanos, I., and Weiss, M.R. (2002). Do leaf shelters always protect caterpillars from invertebrate predators? Ecological Entomology 27:753-757.
Joos, B., Casey, T.M., Fitzgerald, T.D., and Buttemer, W.A. (1988). Roles of the tent in behavioral thermoregulation of eastern tent caterpillars. Ecology 69:2004-2011.
Karban, R., and Baldwin, I.T. (1997). Induced Responses to Herbivory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Landis, D.A., Menalled, F.D., Costamagna, A.C., and Wilkinson, T.K. (2005). Manipulating plant resources to enhance beneficial arthropods in agricultural landscapes. Weed Science 53:902-908.
Lange, W.H. (1987). Insect pests of sugar beet. Annual Review of Entomology 32:341-360.
Larsson, S., Haggstrom, H.E., and Denno, R.F. (1997). Preference for protected feeding sites by larvae of the willow-feeding leaf beetle Galerucella lineola. Ecological Entomology 22:445-452.
Lawton, J.H. (1983). Plant architecture and the diversity of phytophagous insects. Annual Review of Entomology 28:23-39.
Le Corff, J., Marquis, R.J., and Whitfield, J.B. (2000). Temporal and spatial variation in a parasitoid community associated with the herbivores that feed on Missouri Quercus. Environmental Entomology 29:181-194.
Leonova, I.N., and Slynko, N.M. (2004). Life stage variations in insecticidal susceptibility and detoxification capacity of the beet webworm, Pyrausta sticticalis L. (Lep., Pyralidae). Journal of Applied Entomology 28:419-425.
Lill, J.T. (1999). Structure and dynamics of a parasitoid community attacking larvae of Psilocorsis quercicella (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae). Environmental Entomology 28:1114-1123.
-. (2004). Seasonal dynamics of leaf-tying caterpillars on white oak. Journal of the
Lepidopterists' Society 58:1-6.
Lill, J.T., and Marquis, R.J. (2001). The effects of leaf quality on herbivore performance and attack from natural enemies. Oecologia 126:418-428.
-. (2003). Ecosystem engineering by caterpillars increases insect herbivore diversity on white oak. Ecology 84:682-690.
-. (2004). Leaf ties as colonization sites for forest arthropods: An experimental study. Ecological Entomology 29:300-308.
Lill, J.T., Marquis, R.J., Walker, M., and Peterson, L. (2007). Ecological consequences of shelter-sharing by leaf-tying caterpillars. Entomological Experimentalis et Applicata. doi: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.2007.00546.x.
Lind, E.M., Jones, M.T., Long, J.D., and Weiss, M.R. (2001). Ontogenetic changes in leaf shelter construction by larvae of Epargyreus clarus (Hesperiidae), the Silver-spotted skipper. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 54:77-82.
Loeffler, C.C. (1996a). Adaptive trade-offs of leaf folding in Dichomeris caterpillars on goldenrods. Ecological Entomology 21:34-40.
-. (1996b). Caterpillar leaf-folding as a defense against predation and dislodge-
ment: Staged encounters using Dichomeris (Gelechiidae) larvae on goldenrods. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 50:245-260.
Lohman, D.J., Zangerl, A.R., and Berenbaum, M.R. (1996). Impact of floral herbivory by parsnip webworm (Oecophoridae: Depressaria pastinacella Duponchel) on pollination and fitness of wild parsnip (Apiaceae: Pastinaca sativa L.). American Midland Naturalist 136:407-412.
Low, C., and Connor, E.F. (2003). Birds have no impact on folivorous insect guilds on a montane willow. Oikos 103:579-589.
Marquis, R.J., Forkner, R.E., Lill, J.T., and Le Corff, J. (2000). Impact of timber harvest on species accumulation curves for oak herbivore communities of the Missouri Ozarks. In Proceedings of the Second Missouri Ozark Ecosystem Project Symposium: Post-Treatment Results of the Landscape Experiment, S.R. Shifley and J.M. Kabrick, Eds. Saint Paul, MN: USDA Forest Service, North Central Research Station, pp. 183-195.
Marquis, R.J., and Lill, J.T. (2006). Effects of arthropods as physical ecosystem engineers on plant-based trophic interaction webs. In Indirect Interaction Webs: Non-trophic Linkages Through Induced Plant Traits, T. Ohgushi, T.P. Craig, and P.W. Price, Eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 246-274.
Marquis, R.J., Lill, J.T., and Piccinni, A. (2002). Effect of plant architecture on colonization and damage by leaftying caterpillars of Quercus alba. Oikos 99:531-537.
Martinsen, G.D., Floate, K.D., Waltz, A.M., Wimp, G.M., and Whitham, T.G. (2000). Positive interactions between leafrollers and other arthropods enhance biodiversity on hybrid cottonwoods. Oecologia 123:82-89.
Mattiacci, L., and Dicke, M. (1995). The parasitoid Cotesiaglomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) discriminates between first and fifth larval instars of its host Pieris brassicae on the basis of contact cues from frass, silk, and herbivore-damaged leaf tissue. Journal of Insect Behavior 8:485-497.
McGugan, B.M. (1958). Forest Lepidoptera of Canada, Papilionidae to Arctiidae, Vol. 1. Ottawa: Department of Forestry of Canada.
Messina, F.J., Jones, T.A., and Nielson, D.C. (1997). Host-plant effects on the efficacy of two predators attacking Russian wheat aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae). Environmental Entomology 26:1298-1404.
Miliczky, E.R., and Calkins, C.O. (2002). Spiders (Araneae) as potential predators of leafroller larvae and egg masses (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in central Washington apple and pear orchards. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 78:140-150.
Moore, W.S., Koehler, C.S., and Frey, L.S. (1982). Fruittree Leafroller on Ornamentals and Fruit Trees. Leaflet 21053c. Oakland: University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources.
Morin, R.S., Jr., Liebhold, A.M., and Gottschalk, K.W. (2004). Area-wide analysis of hardwood defoliator effects on tree conditions in the Alleghany Plateau. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 21:31-39.
Morris, R.F. (1972). Predation by insects and spiders inhabiting colonial webs of Hyphantria cunea. Canadian Entomologist 104:1197-1207.
Moskal, L.M., and Franklin, S.E. (2004). Relationship between airborne multispectral image texture and aspen defoliation. International Journal of Remote Sensing 25: 2701-2711.
Mothershead, K., and Marquis, R.J. (2000). Fitness impacts of herbivory through indirect effects on plant-pollinator interactions in Oenothera macrocarpa. Ecology 81:30-40.
Mueller, U.G., and Dearing, D. (1994). Predation and avoidance of tough leaves by aquatic larvae of the moth Parapoynx rugosalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Ecological Entomology 19:155-158.
Murakami, M. (1999). Effect of avian predation on survival of leaf-rolling lepidop-terous larvae. Research Population Ecology 41:135-138.
Murdoch, C.L., Tashiro, H., Tavares, J.W., and Mitchell, W.C. (1990). Economic damage and host preference of lepidopterous pests of major warm season turfgrasses of Hawaii, USA. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 30:63-70.
Nakamura, M., and Ohgushi, T. (2003). Positive and negative effects of leaf shelters on herbivorous insects: Linking multiple herbivore species on a willow. Oecologia 136:445-449.
-. (2004). Species composition and life histories of shelter-building caterpillars on
Salix miyabeana. Entomological Science 7:99-104.
Odell, T.M., and Goodwin, P.A. (1984). Host selection by Blepjaripa pratensis, a tachi-nid parasite of gypsy moth. Journal of Chemical Ecology 10:311-320.
Odling-Smee, F.J., Laland, K.N., and Feldman, M.W. (2003). Niche Construction: The Neglected Process in Evolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Oki, Y., and Varanda, E.M. (2000). Lepidoptera rollers and Byrsonima intermedia relationship: The role of secondary metabolites and nutritional status. In XXIth International Congress of Entomology Abstracts. Iguassu Falls, Brazil: Embrapa.
Pasek, J.E., and Kearby, W.H. (1984). Larval parasitism of Psilocorsis spp. (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae), leaftiers of central Missouri oaks. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 57:84-91.
Peterson, S.C. (1986). Breakdown products of cyanogenesis: Repellency and toxicity to predatory ants. Naturwissenschaften 73:627-628.
Pfeiffer, D.G., Kaakeh, W., Killian, J.C., Lachance, M.W., and Kirsch, P. (1993). Mating disruption to control damage by leafrollers in Virginia apple orchards. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 67:47-55.
Powell, J.A. (1980). Evolution of larval food preferences in microlepidoptera. Annual Review of Entomology 25:133-159.
Prentice, R.M. (1962). Forest Lepidoptera of Canada, Nycteolidae, Notodontidae, Noc-tuidae, Liparidae, Vol. 2. Ottawa: Department of Forestry of Canada.
-. (1963). Forest Lepidoptera of Canada, Lasiocampidae, Drepanidae, Thyatiridae,
Geometridae, Vol. 3. Ottawa: Department of Forestry of Canada.
-. (1965). Forest Lepidoptera of Canada, Microlepidoptera, Vol. 4. Ottawa: Department of Forestry of Canada.
Proulx, S.R., Promislow, D.E.L., and Phillips, P.C. (2005). Network thinking in ecology and evolution. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20:345-353.
Reavey, D. (1991). Do birch-feeding caterpillars make the right feeding choices? Oeco-logia 87:257-264.
Remsen, J.V., Jr., and Parker, T.A., III. (1984). Arboreal dead-leaf-searching birds of the Neotropics. The Condor 86:36-41.
Robinson, S.K., and Holmes, R.T. (1982). Foraging behavior of forest birds: The relationships among search tactics, diet, and habitat structure. Ecology 63:1918-1931.
Roland, J. (1993). Large-scale forest fragmentation increases the duration of tent caterpillar outbreak. Oecologia 93:25-30.
Ruehlmann, T.E., Matthews, R.W., and Matthews, J.R. (1988). Roles for structural and temporal shelter-changing by fern-feeding lepidopteran larvae. Oecologia 75:228-232.
Ruohomaki, K., Chapin, F.S., III, Haukioja, E., Neuvonen, S., and Suomela, J. (1996). Delayed inducible resistance in mountain birch in response to fertilization and shade. Ecology 77:2301-2311.
Sagers, C.L. (1992). Manipulation of host plant quality: Herbivores keep leaves in the dark. Functional Ecology 6:741-743.
Sandberg, S.L., and Berenbaum, M.R. (1989). Leaf-tying by tortricid larvae as an adaptation for feeding on phototoxic Hypericum perforatum. Journal of Chemical Ecology 15:875-885.
Scoble, M.J. (1992). The Lepidoptera: Form, Function and Diversity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Seyffarth, J.A.S., Calouro, A.M., and Price, P.W. (1996). Leaf rollers in Ouratea hexa-sperma (Ochnaceae): Fire effect and the plant vigor hypothesis. Revista Brasiliera de Biologia 56:135-137.
Simard, M., and Payette, S. (2005). Reduction of black spruce seed bank by spruce budworm infestation compromises postfire stand regeneration. Canadian Journal of Forest Restoration 35:1686-1696.
Singh, O.P., and Rawat, R.R. (1979). Assessment of losses to mustard Brassica juncea ssp juncea by the cabbage webworm Crocidolomia binotalis (Lepidoptera Pyrali-dae). Indian Journal of Agricultural Science 49:967-969.
Sipura, M. (1999). Tritrophic interactions: Willows, herbivorous insects and insectivorous birds. Oecologia 121:537-545.
Stamp, N.E. (1992). Relative susceptibility to predation of two species of caterpillar on plantain. Oecologia 92:124-129.
Steiner, A.L. (1984). Observations on the possible use of habitat cues and token stimuli by caterpillar-hunting wasps: Eudynerusforaminatus (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae). Quaestiones Entomologicae 20:25-34.
Taylor, P.W., and Jackson, R.R. (1999). Habitat-adapted communication in Trite plani-ceps, a New Zealand jumping spider (Aranae: Salticidae). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 26:127-154.
Trimble, R.M., and Appleby, M.E. (2004). Comparison of efficacy of programs using insecticide and insecticide plus mating disruption for controlling the oblique-banded leafroller in apple (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 97:518-524.
Vasconcelos, H.L. (1991). Mutualism between Maieta guianensis Aubl., a myrmeco-phytic melastome, and one of its ant inhabitants: Ant protection against insect herbivores. Oecologia 87:295-298.
Vishakantaiah, M., and Jagabeesh Babu, C.S. (1981). Bionomics of the turf webworm Maruca testulalis (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). Mysore Journal of Agricultural Science 14:529-532.
Wagner, D.L. (2005). Caterpillars of Eastern North America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Wagner, M.R., and Raffa, K.F. (1993). Sawfly Life History Adaptations to Woody Plants. New York: Academic Press.
Walz, A.M., and Whitham, T.G. (1997). Plant development affects arthropod community structure: Opposing impacts of species removal. Ecology 78:21332144.
Weiss, M.R. (2003). Good housekeeping: Why do shelter-dwelling caterpillars fling their frass? Ecology Letters 6:361-370.
-. (2006). Defecation behavior and ecology of insects. Annual Review of Entomology 51:635-661.
Weiss, M.R., Lind, E.M., Jones, M.T., Long, J.D., and Maupin, J.L. (2003). Uniformity of leaf shelter construction by early-instar larvae of Epargyreus clarus (Hesperi-idae), the silver-spotted skipper. Journal of Insect Behavior 16:465-480.
Weiss, M.R., Wilson, E.E., and Castellanos, I. (2004). Predatory wasps learn to overcome the shelter defences of their larval prey. Animal Behavior 68:45-54.
Wilby, A., Shachak, M., and Boeken, B. (2001). Integration of ecosystem engineering and trophic effects of herbivores. Oikos 92:436-444.
Willmer, P.G. (1980). The effects of a fluctuating environment on the water relations of larval Lepidoptera. Ecol. Entomology 5:271-292.
-. (1982). Microclimate and the environmental physiology of insects. Advances in
Insect Physiology 16:1-57.
Wright, J.P., and Jones, C.G. (2006). The concept of organisms as ecosystem engineers ten years on: Progress, limitations, and challenges. BioScience 56:203-209.
Wright, J.P., Jones, C.G., and Flecker, A.S. (2002). An ecosystem engineer, the beaver, increases species richness at the landscape scale. Oecologia 132:96-101.
Zalucki, M.P., Clarke, A.R., and Malcolm, S.B. (2002). Ecology and behavior of first instar Lepidoptera. Annual Review of Entomology 47:361-393.
Was this article helpful?