Challenges And Conclusions

Evaluation of the ecosystem services provided by oyster reefs could assist coastal managers in readjusting management schemes to maximize the benefits of restoration efforts and consequently shift to an ecosystem approach to fisheries management. For instance, comparison of oyster harvest values with other services reveals the importance of evaluating ecosystem services rather than continuing to exploit oyster reefs for the oyster harvest value. Although the value of oyster harvests may initially measure up to other benefits such as the value of augmented fish production to the commercial fishery, the consequences of destructive oyster sampling either require continual restoration efforts or would result in oyster harvest levels similar to severely degraded estuaries along the eastern U.S. Whether oyster reefs can sustain less destructive oyster harvesting techniques (i.e., how quickly oysters grow to replace losses by harvest) such as diver collection of oysters by hand is unclear and merits further investigation.

Given that the value of augmented commercial fish landings surpasses oyster harvest values, the entire suite of ecosystem services that are sustained by intact reefs probably greatly exceeds the value currently derived from oyster harvests. Oyster restoration efforts at larger scales that enhance water quality potentially result in even larger benefits such as increased recreational use, heightened willingness to consume seafood, and reduced need for construction of wastewater purification systems. Water quality improvements from oyster restoration efforts and their economic values are more difficult to quantify; however, current estimates of the willingness of boaters, beach users, and recreational fishermen from the Chesapeake Bay to pay for local improvements in the Bay's water quality suggest that oyster restoration efforts capable of achieving significant gains in water quality will result in economic returns derived from these changes that far exceed the value of current oyster landings.

Lack of quantitative information on several of the other ecosystem services hinders a more complete evaluation of the suite of benefits provided by oyster reefs and, subsequently, hampers the ability of regulators to implement a more ecosystem-based approach to managing coastal resources. Insufficient data currently exist to fully evaluate local (landscape-scale) and regional variability in ecosystem services. This information would allow coastal managers to determine which reefs provide disproportionately valuable service and should be conserved as sanctuaries. It would also help managers identify those that are less valuable and could be harvested without as much concern for the ecosystem consequences. Placing oyster reefs in the greater context of the estuary requires landscape-scale data with simultaneous evaluation of each habitat across multiple trophic levels, which is difficult to obtain. However, larger-scale restoration efforts to assess the recovery of ecosystem services are currently being conducted in the Gulf of Mexico and in several estuaries along the East Coast of the United States. These studies will greatly enhance our ability to develop more holistic economic models that account for spatial variability in the provision of ecosystem goods and services by oyster reefs.

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How To Have A Perfect Boating Experience

How To Have A Perfect Boating Experience

Lets start by identifying what exactly certain boats are. Sometimes the terminology can get lost on beginners, so well look at some of the most common boats and what theyre called. These boats are exactly what the name implies. They are meant to be used for fishing. Most fishing boats are powered by outboard motors, and many also have a trolling motor mounted on the bow. Bass boats can be made of aluminium or fibreglass.

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