Species index

Page numbers in italics refer to figures

Abies alba 84

Abies concolor 58

Abies granéis 58

Abies lasiocarpa 170, 177, 191

Abies squamata 366

Acacia longifolia 124

Acacia macrocantha 56, 96

Acer negundo 80, 81, 97, 151

Acer pseudoplatanus 84

Acer saccharin 305

Achillea atrata 351

Achillea moschata 351

Aciphylla horrida 144

Aciphylla spp. 143

Aconitum septentrionale 332

295-297, 298, 300, 300 Aegiceras corniculatum 261, 261 Aetoxilon punctatum 114 Agave americana 66 Alces alces 37 alders see Alnus spp. Alkanna orientalis 56 Alnus fruticosa 193, 194 Alnus glutinosa 103, 302 Alnus incana 103, 321 Alnus japonica 229 Alnus rubra 103 Alnus spp. 199, 301, 303, 312 Ammophila arenaria 130, 130, 234, 235,

238, 239, 250, 263, 264 Ammophila brevigulata 238, 264 Ammophila spp. 238, 239 Andromeda polifolia ssp. glaucophylla 325 Andromeda polifolia ssp. polifolia 325—326 Andromeda polifolia 84, 325-326, 325, 329

Anemone spp. 46 Angelica sylvestris 255 Anser caerulens 241 Anser spp. 39 Antennaria alpina 138 Anthus pratensis 43 Arabis alpina 138 Araucaria araucana 20, 155

Araucaria bidwillii 20 Araucaria heterophylla 20 Araucaria spp. 20 Arbutus unedo 22

Arctostaphylos alpina 138, 309, 312, 313, 329

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi 228

Arenaria bryophylla 342

Armeria maritima 255

Arnica spp. 102

Artemisia norvegica 111, 112

Artemisia spp. 134

ash see Fraxinus spp.

aspens see Populus tremula, P. tremuloides

Aster tripolium 254

Atriplex confertifolia 151

Atriplex littoralis 131

Atriplex portulacoides 41

Atriplex spp. 235, 236, 256

Austrocedrus chilensis 55

Avena sativa 405

Avena strigosa 405, 405

Avicennia germinans 261, 261

Avicennia marina 258, 260, 261, 261

Avicennia resinífera 258

Azolla filiculoides 124

Azorella spp. 369

Baccharis spp. 369 Banksia prionotes 92 barley see Hordeum spp. Bassia spp. 50

bearberry see Arctostaphylos spp. Betula ermanii 170 Betula glandulosa 114, 319, 323-324 Betula nana 105, 138, 171, 319, 322, 323-324

Betula intermedia (B. pubescens X B. nana) 429

Betula papyrifera 87, 319 Betula pendul 171, 319 Betula pubescens ssp. Carpatica 319 Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii

(formerly ssp. tortuosa) 170, 171, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323

Betula pubescens 160, 166, 171, 188, 302, 319

Betula spp. 199, 312

Betula utilis 383

bilberry see Vaccinium myrtillus

Bison bonasus 37

birches see Betula spp.

bog cotton see Eriophorum spp.

bog myrtle see Myrica gale bog rosemary see Andromeda polifolia

Bolboschoenus australis 250

Bolboschoenus maritimus 90, 277, 291

Bolboschoenus spp. 292

Bos primigenius 37

Branta bernicla 41

Branta leucopsis 81, 241

buckwheat see Fagopyrum esculentum

Burkholderia sp. 264

buttercups see Ranunculus spp.

butterwort see Pinguicula spp.

Cabomba caroliniana 124 Caesalpina tinctoria 56, 96 Cakile islandica 239 Cakile maritima 65, 235, 239 Calamagrostis stricta 138 Calamagrostis spp. 365, 369 Calluna vulgaris 44, 128, 193, 256, 306, 309, 311, 312, 324, 329, 330, 364, 396

Caltha leptosepela 357 Campanula rotundifolia 138 Campanula uniflora 138 campion see Silene spp. Capreolus capreolus 37 Cardamine bellidifolia 138 Carex aquatalis 41, 106 Carex aquatilis ssp. stans 138 Carex arctisiberia 68 Carex atrata 136 Carex atrofusca 138 Carex bigelowii 105, 136, 138 Carex brunescens 136 Carex capillaries 138 Carex curvula 139, 140, 153

Carex curvula ssp. curvula 351 Carex curvula ssp. rosae 351 Carex ensifolia 68 Carex firma 125, 139, 140 Carex fuliginosa 138 Carex lachenalii 138 Carex misandra 245 Carex nigra 136, 300 Carex norvegica 136 Carex papyrus 277 Carex parallela 138 Carex rariflora 138 Carex rostrata 277 Carex rupestris 138 Carex saxatilis 138 Carex serotina 136 Carex subspathacea 41 Carex spp. 14, 139, 292 Carica candens 56, 96 Carpobrotus edulis 250 Cassiope hypnoides 138, 193, 329, 332

Cassiope lycopodíodes 309

Cassiope tetragona 106,107, 138, 213, 314,

318, 329 Castanea sativa 129 Castilleja linariaefolia 134 Casuarina spp. 96 Ceiba chodati 55 Celmisia haastii 372 Celmisia prorepens 372 Celmisia viscosa 372 Celmisia spp. 143 Cerastium uniflorum 138, 361 Cervus elaphus 37 Chamaecyparis formosensis 229 Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 229 Chamaecyparis nootkatensis 21, 229 Chamaecyparis obtusa 229 Chamaecyparis pisifera 229 Chamaecyparis taiwanensis 229 Chamaecyparis thyoides 229 Chamaecyparis spp. 21, 227 Cheiranthus himalaicus 342 Chenopodium quinoa 415 Chimantaea spp. 347 Chionochloa rubra 143 Chionochloa spp. 143 Chrysosplenium oppositifolium 256, 256 Cinnamomum glanduliferum 118, 129 Cistus spp. 49

club-rushes see Bolboschoenus spp., Schoenoplectus spp., Scirpus spp.

Cochlearia officinalis 256 Coleus spp. 345

Colobanthus quitensis 148, 246, 247, 248, 249, 360

Combretum 50 Coprosma acerosa 250 Corallorrhiza trifida 428, 428 Corophium volutator 250 Cortaderia spp. 369 Corylus avellana 38, 166, 396, 397, 426

couch grasses see Elytrigia spp.

Crambe maritima 24, 24 cranberry see Vaccinium oxycoccos, V. macrocarpon, V. microcarpum Crassula helmsii 124 Crassula spp. 98

Crithmum maritimum 74, 75, 252, 253 crowberry see Empetrum spp.

Cryptomeria japonica 94 Cytisus oromediterraneus 329

Darlingtonia spp. 346 Daucus spp. 369 deer red deer see Cervus elaphus reindeer see Rangifer tarandus roe deer see Capreolus capreolus

Dendrosenecio spp. 356

Deschampsia antarctica 148, 246-248, 247,

249, 360 Deschampsia berengensis 215, 277 Deschampsia caespitosa 101 Deschampsia flexuosa 319 Desmoschoenus spiralis 120, 130, 250 Diapensia lapponica 213 Dictamnus albus 50 Dicymbe corymbosa 144, 145 Digitalis purpurea 256 Distichlis spicata 151 Donacia claviceps 301 Draba daurica 138 Draba fladnizensis 138 Draba lactea 138 Draba nivalis 138 Draba sibirica 228 Draba spp. 120, 219, 369 Dracophyllum longifolium 335-337, 336

Dracophyllum muscoides 372

Dracophyllum spp. 334

Drosera spp. 346

Dryas integrifolia 135

106, 107, 138, 213, 214, 318 Dupontia fischeri 106

Echinopsis spp. 369 edelweiss see Leontopodium alpinum eel grasses see Zostera spp. Eichhornia crassipes 124

Eleocharis palustris 111

Elodea canadensis 124

Elytrigia aetherica 118

Elytrigia juncea 118, 238, 264

Elytrigia repens 81, 118, 239

Empetrum nigrum 138, 256, 309, 314,

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