Latitude

Fig. 5.11 Arctic and subarctic treeline elevation as seen in the maximum elevation for the occurrence of spruce stands (forest and krummholz black circles) according to latitude from the continuous forest limit to the arctic treeline and the species limit in the tundra. The amplitude of the lowering of the subarctic treeline (red circles) is shown according to latitude. The shaded area corresponds to the topographic corridor of maximum and minimum ground altitudes according to latitude from 55° to 60o N. (Reproduced with permission from Payette et al., 2001 with additional photographic inserts by courtesy of Professor S. Payette.)

Fig. 5.12 Distribution of Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila) and the east Siberian pine (P. sibirica). Pinus pumila has the most northerly distribution reaching 72° 320 N in the Lower Khatanga River. (Reproduced with permission from Hulten & Fries, 1986.)
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