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Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum

312, 324

Empetrum nigrum ssp. nigrum 312, 314, 324

Empetrum rubrum 314, 329

Empetrum spp. 329

Ephedera viridis 151

Epirrata autumnalis 171, 319, 322

Equisetum arvensis 81

Equus przewalski 37

Erica arborea 49

Erica cinerea 256, 311

Erica melanthera 48

Erica tetralix 324

Erica spp. 312, 329

Erigeron spp. 102

Erigeron uniflorus 138

Eriophorum angustifolium 71, 72, 106, 138,

211, 291, 292, 293 Eriophorum scheuchzeri 138, 291, 292, 293

Eriophorum vaginatum 71, 72, 99, 105,

106, 277, 291, 292, 293 Eriophorum spp. 291, 292 Eritrichium nanum 351, 377 Erophila verna 263 Erotia lanata 373

Eritrichium nanum ssp. jankkae 351 Erythronium grandiflorum 357, 359 Espeletia spp. 356 Eucalyptus spp. 92, 96 Eugenia spp. 56, 96 Euphrasia frigidas 138 eyebright see Euphrasia frigida

Fagopyrum esculentum 405 Fagus sylvatica 84 Fallopia japonica 124 fescue grasses see Festuca spp. Festuca organogenesis 329 Festuca orthophylla 369 Festuca vivipara 215, 277 Festuca spp. 365, 369 Filipendula ulmaria 138, 277, 295, 298, 299

firs see Abies spp. Fraxinus pennsylvanica 305 Fraxinus spp. 129 Fritillaria meleagris 23, 23 Fucus vesiculosus 236

Galium spp. 46 Gaultheria spp. 329 geese see Branta spp.

Gentiana acaulis ssp. clusii 351

Gentiana acaulis ssp. kochiana 351

Gentiana nivalis 138

Gentiana spp. 369

Gentianella tenella 138

Geranium spp. 369

Geum intermedium 120

Geum reptans 367

Geum rivale 120, 374

Geum urbanum 120

Ginkgo biloba 13, 20, 21, 22

Glaux maritima 267, 269

Glyceria maxima 158, 277, 295, 296,

298-300, 299, 300 Glyceria spp. 405 gorse, whin or furze see Ulex europaeus grass of Parnassus see Parnassia palustris Grevillea robusta 93

hazel see Corylus avellana heather see Calluna vulgaris heaths see Erica spp. Cassiope spp.,

Phyllodoce caerulea Hebe mora 372 Hedera helix 129 Heliamphora nutans 346, 346 Heliamphora spp. 346 Helianthus annuus 423 Helichrysum newii 365 Herpotrichia sp. 328 Hierochloe alpina 138 Hippophae rhamnoides 103, 152, 153, 270,

270, 317, 328 holly see Ilex aquifolium Holocarpus spp. 334 Homo sapiens 383 Homogyne alpina 359 Honckenya peploides 235, 236 honeysuckle see Lonicera periclymenum Hordeum murinum 131 Hordeum vulgare var. tetrastichon 405, 405 Hutchinsia alpina 351 Hutchinsia brevicaulis 351 Hyacinthoides hispanica 127 Hyacinthoides non-scripta 114, 127, 127

Ilex aquifolium 129

Iris fulva 134

Iris germanica 277

Iris giganticaerulea 120

Iris pseudacorus 88, 88, 277, 287

Isoetes lacustris 282

Isoetes spp. 98 ivy see Hedera helix

Jam.ens.onia spp. 369 Juncus biglumis 138 Juncus conglomeratus 111 Juncus effusus 211, 281, 286 Juncus spp. 292, 295, 305 Juncus triglumis 138 Juniperus communis 326-328 Juniperus communis ssp. communis

326-328, 326 Juniperus communis ssp. nana (syns. alpina, J. sibirica) 326-328, 327, 329

Kalmia spp. 312 Kobresia myosuroides 361 Kobresia pygmaea 310 Koenigia islandica 66, 68, 140

Laminaria digitata 266 Laminaria hyperborea 266 larch see Larix spp. Larix dahurica 303 Larix decidua 190, 315, 375 Larix gmelinii 185 Larix laricina 185 Larix sibirica 185 Larrea divaricata 92 Lathraea clandestine 91, 91 Laurelia phillipiana 114 Ledum spp. 329 Lemmus lemmus 39 Leontopodium alpinum 358 Lepidium draba 230 Lepidothamnus laxifolius 335 Lepus europaeus 41 Leucaena leucophala 134 Leymus arenarius 15, 77, 235, 239, 264 Leymus mollis 239—240, 264 Leymus racemosus 250 Ligusticum scoticum 13, 73, 74, 75, 235, 237

lime trees (linden) see Tilia spp. Limonium vulgare 74 Littorella spp. 98

Littorella uniflora 98, 216, 282, 290, 291,

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