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Lobelia deckenii 365 Lobelia dortmanna 281, 282 Lobelia spp. 356 Loiseleuria procumbens 213, 329 Lonicera periclymenum 256 louseworts see Pedicularis spp. Ludwigia arcuata 291 Lupinus albus 103, 104 Lupinus arboreus 250

Lupinus spp. 369 Luzula arcuata 138 Luzula confusa 312, 342 Luzula parviflora 147 Luzula spicata 138 Luzula sylvatica 254, 256 Lychnis alpina 138 Lycopodiella spp. 369 Lycopodium annotinum 106

Magnolia grandiflora 129

mangroves see Avicennia spp.

maples see Acer spp.

Marram grasses see Ammophila spp.

Meadow grasses see Poa spp.

Medicago laciniata 120

Mentha aquatica 277

Mercurialis perennis 101

Mertensia maritima 24, 73, 73, 74

Metasequoia glyptostroboides 13, 13, 23

Microdracoides squamosus 347

Microtus nivalis 348

Microtus spp. 348

Minuartia biflora 138

Minuartia rubella 138

Minuartia sedoides 351

Minuartia stricta 138

Minuartia verna 351

mistletoe see Viscum spp.

Molinia caerulea 405

monkey-puzzle (Chile pine) see Araucaria araucana mountain avens see Dryas octopetala mountain laurels see Kalmia spp.

Myrica gale 103 Myrsine divaricata 336 Myrtus communis 49

Nelumbo nucifera 147 Nereis diversicolor 250, 251 Nothofagus antarctica 360 Nothofagus dombeyi 6, 52, 126 Nothofagus menziesii 128 Nothofagus pumilio 6, 114, 121, 127, 155, 156

Nothofagus rubra 128 Nothofagus solandri 423 Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortiodes 145, 146

Nothofagus spp. 5, 114, 146, 428 Nototriche spp. 369 Nucifraga caryocatactes 114 Nucifraga columbiana 114, 116 nutcrackers see Nucifraga spp. Nymphaea alba 272, 283 Nyssa aquatica 229, 305 Nyssa sylvatica 301

oak see Quercus spp. oats see Avena spp. Ochotona princeps 348 Operophtera brumata 171, 319, 320 Otanthus maritimus 131, 132 Ovibus moschatus 39 Oxalis tuberosus 415 Oxyria digyna 16, 17, 138, 202, 277, 348

Oxytropis deflexa 228

Papaver radicatum 314 Parnassia palustris 256 Pedicularis dasyantha 62, 90 Pedicularis hirsuta 138 Pedicularis lapponica 138 Pedicularis spp. 90, 91 Phacidium infestans 194 Phalaris arundinacea 277, 295, 295 Phippsia algida 136, 138 Phragmites australis 137, 156, 250, 252, 272, 277, 281, 282-284, 285, 286, 292, 293, 298, 299, 300-301,300, 426

Phyllitis scolopendrium 257 Phyllodoce caerulea 16, 138 Picea abies 15, 186, 191, 230 Picea abies ssp. obovata 166 Picea engelmannü 170 Picea glauca 175, 187 Picea glehnii 229

Picea mariana 170, 179, 185, 188, 189,

194, 303, 323, 324, 325 Picea sithchensis 13, 75, 304 Pinguicula alpina 137, 137 Pinguicula villosa 137 Pinguicula vulgaris 137, 138 Pinguicula spp. 137 Pinus abicaulis 114, 116 Pinus aristata 155, 170, 155 Pinus canariensis 94, 95 Pinus cembra 12, 13, 114, 191 Pinus engelmannii 86 Pinus glauca 170 Pinus longeava 155, 170, 155 Pinus moticola 58 Pinus mugo 2, 170, 176, 292, 423 Pinus mugo ssp. pumílío 292, 294 Pinus muricata 229 Pinus palustris 86, 86 Pinus pinaster 265 Pinus pinea 265

Pinus pumila 169, 170,173,193, 194, 229, 303

Pinus radiata 229 Pinus roxburghii 351 Pinus serotina 229

Pinus sibirica 173

Pinus spp. subsection Cembrae 127 Pinus sylvestris 146, 171, 187, 192, 193, 228, 276, 309, 311, 321, 322, 402, 430

Pinus uncinata 190, 375, 375 Piriqueta caroliniana 120 Pitcairnia feliciana 347 Pittosporum spp. 334 Plantago coronopus 254 Plantago lanceolata 423 Plantago maritima 68, 69, 254, 255, 267, 423

Plettkea spp. 369 Poa alpina 138, 155, 155 Poa alpina var. alpina 155 Poa alpina var. vivípara 88, 155 Poa arctica 138 Poa colensoi 372 Poa glauca 138 Poa pratensis 138 Podocarpus nivalis 335, 335, 379 Podocarpus spp. 379 Polygonella spp. 58 Polygonum oxyspermum ssp. rayii 140, 142, 149

Polygonum viviparum 17, 88, 137, 138,

154, 241, 244 Polylepis spp. 13, 366-369, 367 Polylepis tarapacana 366, 368, 369 poplar see Populus spp. poppy see Papaver spp. Populus balsimifera 150, 151 Populus fremontii 92 Populus spp. 397

Populus tremula 156, 157, 256, 259, 302 Populus tremuloides 68, 151, 177 Potamogeton nodosus 291 Potentilla crantzii 138

Potentilla hyparctica 88

Potentilla nivea 138

Potentilla stipularis 228

Primula auricula 351

Primula hirsuta 351

Primula scotica 14, 23 , 35, 428

Primula vulgaris 255

Prosopis juliflora 54

Protea spp. 48

Prunus laurocerasus 120

Pseudotsuga menziesU 58, 87

Pteridium aquilinum 68, 81, 129, 131, 133

Puccinellia phryganodes 41, 78, 97, 100,

100, 154, 217, 218, 241 Puccinellia spp. 241 Puya spp. 356 Pyrola grandiflora 65, 67 Pyrola norvegica 138

Quercus alba 305 Quercus petraea 38, 430, 430 Quercus robur 38, 84 Quercus spp. 129 quillwort see Isoetes spp.

Rangifer tarandus 39

Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus 342,

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