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Ranunculus acris 138, 373, 374 Ranunculus alpestris 351 Ranunculus glacialis 66, 138, 343, 348,

351, 361, 362, 373 , 374, 377, 378, 379 Ranunculus nivalis 135, 138 Ranunculus pygmaeus 16, 17, 88, 138, 213 Ranunculus repens 277, 292-294 Ranunculus spp. 46 Rhizophora mangle 261, 261 Rhizophora stylosa 261, 261 Rhodiola rosea 138 Rhododendron catawbiens 124 Rhododendron caucasicum 120, 121 Rhododendron ferrugineum 351, 351 Rhododendron hirsutum 351, 352 Rhododendron lapponicum 138, 332 Rhododendron luteum 121 Rhododendron ponticum 82, 118, 120, 124,

129, 311 Rhododendron smirnowH 121 Rhododendron subsection Pontica 22 Rhododendron X sochadzeae 120, 121, 122

Rhododendron spp. 120, 121, 312, 329

Rosmarinus officinalis 49

Rubus chamaemorus 202, 325, 422

Rumex acetosa 256, 288

Rumex crispus 261

Rumex obtusifolius 261

Rumex palustris 288, 289, 290

Rumex spp. 289

rushes see Juncus spp.

rye see Scirpus spp. 292

Secale cereale 405

Sagittaria spp. 98

Salix alba 275

Salix arbuscula 318

Salix arctica 76, 108, 149, 314, 316

Salix caprea 129

Salix cinerea 118

Salix fragUis 275

Salix glauca 149, 314

Salix goodingii 92

Salix herbacea 314, 316, 317, 332, 351

Salix herbacea X S. polaris 102 Salix lanata 138, 277, 314, 318 Salix lapponum 318

Salix myrsinifolia 149 Salix myrsinites 318 Salix phylicifolia 277 Salix polaris 17, 88, 89, 149, 156, 191, 193, 312, 314, 316, 317, 317, 318, 318, 333, 333

Salix polaris ssp. pseudopolaris 314 Salix repens 129, 149, 153, 250, 428 Salix reticulata 191, 309, 314, 316, 316, 318

Salix retusa 351

Salix spp. 199, 219, 301, 312, 396 saltcedar see Tamarix spp. salt-marsh grasses see Puccinellia spp. Salvinia molesta 125 sandworts see Minuartia spp.,

Honckenya peploides Saracenia spp. 346, 423 Saussurea gnaphalodes 342, 342 Saxifraga aizoides 138 Saxífraga aizoon 351 Saxífraga biflora 343 Saxifraga caespitosa 277 Saxifraga cernua 138, 154, 211 Saxifraga cespitosa 138 Saxifraga cotyledon 351 Saxifraga flagellaris 75 Saxifraga flagellaris ssp. platysepela 77 Saxifraga hieracifolia 277 Saxifraga hyperborea 213 Saxifraga kochii 343 Saxifraga X kochii 343 Saxifraga nivalis 138 Saxifraga oppositifolia 7, 17, 17, 20, 34, 58, 76, 79, 88, 97, 105, 112, 137, 138, 139, 200, 201, 204, 211, 212, 213, 214, 216, 221, 241, 244, 244, 111, 312, 314, 343, 351, 361-363, 362, 378-379, 383, 420

Saxifraga rivularis 138 Saxifraga rupestre 351 Saxifraga seguieri 361 Saxifraga spp. 120, 219 Saxifraga stellaris 138 Saxifraga tenuis 138, 213 Schinus molle 56

Schoenoplectus (Scirpus) californicus 406, 407

Schoenoplectus lacustris 88, 277, 285, 286,

289, 291, 297, 404 Schoenoplectus maritimus 291 Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani 291, 406 Schoenoplectus spp. 293 Scirpus spp. 292, , see also Bolboschoenus spp., Schoenoplectus spp. sea-buckthorn see Hippophae rhamnoides sea-kale see Crambe maritima

Secale cereale 405 sedges see Carex spp.

Sedum atratum 351 Sedum montanum 351 Sedum rosea 254 Senecio aethensis 125 Senecio aquatícus 118, 119, 119, 120, 130

Senecio bellidüdes 123 Senecio cambrensis 114, 126 Senecio chrysanthemifolius 125 Senecio eboracensis 126, 126 Senecio jacobea 118, 119, 120 Senecio johnstonii ssp. cottonü 365 Senecio johnstonii ssp. johnstonii 365 Senecio leucophyllus 370, 371 Senecio smithii 123 Senecio squalidus 123, 125, 126, 139, 140

Senecio vulgaris 125, 126, 126

Senecio vulgaris var. híbernícus 126

Senecio spp. 123, 365

Sequoia sempervirens 20, 21, 227, 229

Sequoiadendron giganteum 94

Seslaría coerulea 351

Seslaria disticha 351

shoreweed see Littorella spp.

Sibbaldia procumbens 88, 138

Sílene acaulis 135, 136, 138, 241

Sílene dioica 255

Silene rupestris 351

Sílene uniflora ssp. petraea 351

Silene wahlbergella 138

Solanum acaule 415

Solanum tuberosum 277, 415

Soldanella alpina 351

Soldanella pusillia 351, 359

Solidago virgaurea 256

Sonchus arvensis 81

Sorbus aucuparia 146, 176, 397

southern beeches see Nothofagus spp.

Spartina alterniflora 122, 127, 298, 300

Spartina anglica 122, 123, 123, 137, 251,

252, 252, 277 Spartina foliosa 127 Spartina maritima 122 Spartina townsendü 122 Spartina X neyrautü 122 Spartina spp. 258 Spergularia diandra 135 Spergularia marina 131 Sphagnum magellanicum 96 Sphagnum spp. 96, 103 Spinafex sericeus 250 spruce see Picea spp. Stegolopsis spp. 347 Stellaria decumbens 342

Stipa spp. 369

strawberry tree see Arbutus unedo Sueada vera S Sus scrofa 37

sweet flag see Acorus calamus Syncarpha vestita 47

Tamarix spp. 92, 125, 311 Tanacetum gossypinum 357 Taraxacum 102 Taxodium distichum 229, 301 Taxodium spp. 21, 227 Taxus baccata 84

Tephroseris palustris ssp. congesta (syn.

Senecio paludosus) 140, 141 Teucrium scorodonia 256 Thalictrum alpinum 13S Thalictrum fendleri 151 thrift see Armeria maritima Thuja orientalis 229 Thuja plicata 58 Thymus vulgaris 50 Tilia cordata 111, 113, 113 Tilia spp. 129 Tillandsia brachycaulos 87 Tillandsia capillaries 56 Tillandsia landbeckii 56 Tillandsia latifolia 56, 57, S7 Tillandsia marconae 56 Tillandsia purpurea 56 Tillandsia usneoides 87 Tillandsia werdermanii 56 Tillandsia spp. 56 Tofieldia pusilla 13S Tortula ruraliformis 263 Trapa natans 291 Triplospermum maritimum 256 Trisetum spicatum 13S Trisetum subalpestre 228 Tropaeolum tuberosum 415 Tussilago farfara 277 Typha latifolia 6, 7, 88, 98, 277, 281, 285

Ulex europaeus 49 Ullucus tuberosus 415 Unioloa paniculata 264 Urtica dioica 101, 256

Vaccinium macrocarpon 288, 409, 410 Vaccinium microcarpon 409 Vaccinium myrtillus 13, 71, 71, 193, 319,

329-330, 331, 332, 372, 409 Vaccinium oxycoccos 409 Vaccinium uliginosum 73, 13S, 202, 319,

324, 422 Vaccinium vitis-idaa 202, 324, 409

Vaccinium spp. 312, 329 Valeriana spp. 369 Vallisneria spp. 98 Verbascum blattaria 141 Veronica alpina 138 Veronica peregrina 292 Vicia faba 405 Vicia lathyroides 263 Victoria regina 284

Viscum spp. 90 Vochysia tucanorum 52

Werneria spp. 369 willows see Salix spp. Wollemia nobilis 20 wood-rushes see Luzula spp.

Xanthoria parietina 254

yew see Taxus baccata Yucca brevifolia 54, 55

Zea mays 415 Zostera marina 250 Zostera noltii 251 Zostera spp. 122, 251, 258

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