S

Safsaf Oasis, Egypt 138, 138-139 Sager, Will 83

Sahara 130, 136, 138, 138-139 salinity 107, 145 salt 76

Samson, Perry 21 San Andreas Fault 164 sand dunes 67, 68-69, 82 sand/dust transport 68 sand sea 68-69

Saraswati River, India 136-137 satellites/satellite data 3, 6, 132, 137, 140 Schmidt, Gavin 3, 38, 89, 143-145, 155 Schrag, Daniel P. 27 Scotese, Christopher R. 162, 164 Seager, Richard 160-161 sea level 33-34, 112, 130, 151, 172c sea surface temperature 107, 110,

159-160 seawater 49

sediment 79, 81-85, 111, 146-148 sedimentary rock layers and ancient climate evidence 43 and ancient climatic belts 23 and climate reconstruction resolution 54-55

formation of 79

igneous rock for dating of 46-47, 48 and relative dating 43 and Snowball Earth 25-26 sediment core 82, 118-120 sediment deposition 55 seed banks 128 Shindell, Drew 38

Shuttle Radar Topography Mission 136

silica 147

silicon dioxide 98

Smol, John P. 103

snow 86, 150

Snowball Earth 25-30, 26

sodium 81, 82

soil(s) 75-80, 77, 78, 146-147. See also loess soil horizon 61 soil profile 76-78, 77, 78 solar energy 20, 36 solar radiation cycles 11 solifluxion 69 soluble minerals 75 solution cavities 93 Southwest, U.S.

carbonate sedimentary rocks in 66 cave environments 92 desertification in 14 droughts in 122-124, 123, 157 population growth in 159 weathering during last ice age 62 Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) 138 Spain 127 speleothems 93, 94 stalactites/stalagmites 92 State Farm Insurance 129 statistical analysis 74, 107 Stern, Sir Nicholas 174c stratosphere 3, 155-156 stream terraces 61 subduction 18-19 subduction zones 164 subsistence farming 128 subsoil 76 sulfates 146, 156 sulfur dioxide 3, 155 summers 20, 33, 36, 37 Sun 25

supercomputers 154-155 superposition, law of 43 swamps 79

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