P

Pacific Ocean 150, 165

western 150 pack rat middens 100, 100-103, 101 Palaeozoic 30

Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

(PETM) 32 paleoclimatic data. See proxy data paleoclimatology xvi, 1-15 and climate forecasting 7-8 and climate modeling 157 and climate patterns 12-15

need for information from tropics and oceans 41 origin of term 2 primeval forests 137 purpose of 2-7 remote sensing for 134 to track rate of climate change 8-12 paleolimnology 82-83 Paleomap Project 163, 164 paleosoils 75, 79 palm fossils 112 Pangaea 30

Pangaea Ultima 164-165 parent element 44-46, 50 particulates 88, 90 passive remote sensing 133 patterned ground 69-70 peat bogs 111 pediments 66

Penultimate Interglacial Period 33-34 period(s) 17

periodic table of the elements 44, 167 Peteet, Dorothy M. 147-148 Peterson, Dee 147-148 PETM (Paleocene-Eocene Thermal

Maximum) 32 Phanerozoic Eon 24-32 photography 132 photosynthesis 50 Pichegru, Jean 37 Pinatubo, Mount 3, 4, 155-156 pine 148

pinecones 111-112 pingos 70 pixels 133

plant life. See vegetation plant remains 83 plate tectonics 19

and future Earth conditions 161-165, 163

and long-term climate change 18-19 and paleoclimatology 22-23 and Snowball Earth 26, 28-29 playas 68, 75 Pleistocene 11, 32-35 Pleistocene giant bison 98 polar regions 40, 112, 172c, 174c pollen deposits 111, 127, 148 population growth 159 positive feedback 20, 150. See also feedback potassium-argon dating 50 Poulsen, Christopher 31 Powell, Lake 159 Precambrian 23, 25-29, 49, 50 precession of the equinoxes 11, 21 precipitation 65-66, 160. See also rainfall prehistoric climate change 7-8 protactinium-231 49 proxy (term) 56 proxy data biotic 96-114

cave environments 92-95, 93 for constructing time lines 16 coral 108-111, 109, 110 defined 6

dendrochronology 103-108, 104-107 forams 32, 82, 84, 98-100, 99 fossils 43-44, 47, 62, 84, 97-98, 99 and GCMs 153 geological/geochemical 73-79 geomorphic landforms 58-72 from ice cores 85-90, 89 loess 90-92, 91 minerals 146-147 pack rat middens 100-103, 101 sediments 79, 81-85 soils 75-79, 77, 78 vegetation 111-114 pyrite 147

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