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oak 148

Obama, Barack 169c ocean(s) 84-85, 107 ocean circulation 99-100 ocean currents 9-10, 30, 34-35, 99100

Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) 83-84

ocean sediments 53

ocean temperatures 82, 98. See also sea surface temperature ODP (Ocean Drilling Program) 83-84 oil price spike (2008) 169c oil wells 169c old-growth forests 137 orbit, of Earth 19-22, 33, 36 orbital tuning 53-54 oxides 75 oxygen 32 oxygen-16 88 oxygen-18 33, 53, 54, 88 oxygen isotopes in clay 147 and coral 107 and dendrochronology 104 for determining droughts 119-120 for determining past climate change 33

in forams 98

and ice core study 82, 86, 88 and orbital tuning 53, 54 and pack rat midden research 100 and speleothem research 94-95

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