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Laboratory of Tree Ring Research

(LTRR) 107 lacustrine sediments 81 lake bottom sediment cores 82-83 lakes, ancient 62

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Drought Research Lab (Columbia University) 157-158, 160 land management 127 LANDSAT satellite 138 La NiƱa 159, 160 Last Glacial Maximum 4, 66 late Cretaceous 112 Late Holocene Neoglacial Fluctuations 36

Laurentide ice sheet 112 lava 45

law of superposition 43 lead 49-50

LeGrande, Allegra 144, 145 LIDAR (light detection and ranging) 135

Lieberman, Joseph 173c limestone 66, 93, 118

limnology 82-83, 103

Little Ice Age 7, 36-40, 127, 148, 169c locusts 102-103

long-term climate patterns 12, 18-19

long-term drought 116

Los Angeles, California 164

lowlands 79

LTRR (Laboratory of Tree Ring Research) 107

macrofossils 111

magma 49

magnesium 150

magnesium chloride 76

magnetic reversals 53

Mali 130

marshes 147-148

Martin, Paul 101

mass extinctions 17, 30

mass movement 65

mastodon 97

Mathewes, Rolf W. 102

Mauna Loa Observatory 170c

Maunder Minimum 3, 38-39, 156

Mayan civilization 116-121

McCain, John 173c

Medieval Warm Period 5, 36, 148

megadrought 123, 158

meridional overturning circulation

(MOC) 144-145 Mesopotamia 14, 124-125 metamorphic rock 49 methane 31-32, 89-90 microfossils 84, 125 microwaves 134, 135 mid-Cretaceous 30-32, 31 middens 100-103, 101 Middle East 124-125, 138, 138-139 Mid-Holocene Thermal Maximum 35-36

mid-term climate changes 19-22 migration, of plant/animal species

149-150 Milankovitch, Milutin M. 19 Milankovitch cycles 19-22, 22, 33 mineral(s) 75-76, 84, 146-147 mineral deposits 75-76, 92 "minidrought" 120 Miocene 112-113 Mix, Alan 84-85 MOC (meridional overturning circulation) 144-145 moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) 139 MODIS (moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer) 139 moisture 62-63 Mojave Desert 66 monsoons 54

moraines 70, 72 mountain habitats 149-150 mountain valleys 70 musk ox 97

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