C

Cacaxtla people 122 calcite 66, 93

calcium carbonate 79, 92, 98, 107,

119-120 caliche 61 California 129 Callendar, Guy S. 170c cap and trade programs 173c carbon-12 51 carbon-13 85 carbon-14 50 carbonates 30, 54, 146 carbonate sedimentary rocks 66, 93 carbon cycle 85 carbon dioxide in climate modeling 4, 144, 155, 157 and feedback 8, 20 and glacial periods 19 during Hothouse Earth period 30, 31

in ice cores 89-90 levels in late 1800s 169c during Little Ice Age 38 in ocean xvi during Palaeozoic 30 and paleoclimatology 74-75

plate tectonics and 19 during Pleistocene 29 rising atmospheric levels (1950-1970) 170c during Snowball Earth period 28-29 and temperature 9, 10 carbon footprint xvi carbon-nitrogen dating (radiocarbon dating) 50-53, 51, 100 caves 92-95, 93

Central America 116-122, 119, 121 Central Sahara, Africa 139 charcoal 148

Checkerboard Mesa (Utah) 65, 65 chemical elements 167, 168 chemical weathering 60 Chicago heat wave (1995) 129 China 102-103, 126, 129 chloride salts 146 chlorite 147 Chumash people 116 cirque 70-71

civilizations, past 115-127 clay 146-147 climate 117 climate cycles 53 climate forcing 38, 40, 62 climate forecasting 7-8 climate intervals 16-41 climate markers 55 climate modeling of abrupt climate change 4-5,

143-145 CO2 as factor in 144, 155, 157 fossil record as proxy for development of 113 GISS ModelE 145

and landforms of cold environments 72

need for improvement in 40 NOAA data for 6 for North America 157-161 paleoclimatic data for 2-3, 5-6 to predict future climate 152-157 climate monitoring 107 climate patterns 12-15, 104 climate proxies 56-57. See also proxy data climate reconstruction resolution 54-55

climatologists xvi, 59, 74 closed system 45-46 cold environments 69-72, 71, 72, 79 coleoptera 102

Columbia University Drought Research

Lab 157-158 computer analysis 133 computer modeling of climate. See climate modeling of plate tectonics 164, 165 contamination 52-53 coral 66, 108-111, 109, 110 coral bleaching. See bleaching cosmic rays 50 Cretaceous 112 crops 6

cross-dating 104 Curtis, Jason H. 118

Dansgaard-Oeschger Events 34 Darfur 135-136 Dark Ages 36

dating techniques 42-53, 48. See also specific techniques, e.g.: carbon-nitrogen dating daughter element 44-46, 50 debris flows 66

deforestation 120, 122, 126, 127, 170c delay constant 44

dendrochronology 53, 103-108, 104107

desertification 14-15, 31 desert soils 79 deuterium isotopes 100 diatoms 81, 83, 98-99, 103 digital imaging 133, 140 Douglas, Marianne S. V. 103 Douglass, Andrew Ellicott 103, 108 drought

Central America 116, 118, 120, 122 and charcoal in marsh sediments 148

and climate modeling 161 early 1970s 170c effect on civilizations 116-117 Elk Lake sediment proxy data 82 Great Plains 111-112

India 125-126 locusts and 103 Middle East 125 North America 157-161 Southwestern U.S. 122-124, 123 Drought Research Lab 157-158 drumlins 70, 72 dune fields 63, 67, 68 dune systems 68 dust 90

0 0

Post a comment