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abrupt climate change and Dansgaard-Oeschger Events 34 extinction v. adaptation during 102 historical evidence for 10-13 in Iceland 126 modeling of 4-5, 143-145 need for greater understanding of 40 and proxy data 59 and Snowball Earth 29 absolute dating 43 active remote sensing 133-134 adaptation 102, 127-130 aerosols 3

138-139 Ager, Thomas 113 agriculture climate history data 6 and global warming 128 during Little Ice Age 38 in Mayan civilization 116, 119, 120 origins 117

and Saraswati River 136-137 Akkadian Empire 125 Alaska 113

albedo. See also ice-albedo feedback and climate modeling 154 and Faint Young Sun paradox 25 and feedback 11-12 and Snowball Earth 25, 28 and warming of polar areas 150 algae 28, 103 alluvial fans 66, 68 alpine lake 12 alumina 147 aluminum 75, 79, 147 Amasia 165 ammonium 120 anaerobic bacteria 89

Anasazi civilization 14, 118, 122, 158 ancient civilizations 115-127 ancient climates 22-32, 40-41 ancillary data 2 anhydrite 146 Antarctica 85

Antarctic ice sheet 170c, 172c, 173c anthropogenic climate change xvi Guy Callendar's view of xvi, 170c and climate modeling 153, 161 and Earth's current temperatures 149, 150

natural change v. 116 and proxy data 59 and second IPCC report 172c threat to Southwestern U.S. 124 aquatic insects 103 archaeology 134 Archibald, S. Bruce 102 Arctic Ocean 32 arĂȘtes 71, 72 Argaric people 127 argon 50 arid environments cave formation 94 geomorphic landforms 61-69, 64, 65

Middle East 124-125, 138, 138-139 mineral evidence of 146 soils in 75-76 Arrhenius, Svante 169c arroyos 122 Asia 69

Atlantic Ocean 164

Atlantic Thermohaline Current 34-35

atmosphere 88

attribute tables 140

Australia 38, 129, 164

Babylonian kingdom 125 Barnosky, Tony 100-102 baseline xv bauxite 147

Becquerel, Henri 45 bedrock 78 beetles 102 Bell, Chris J. 100-101 biotic proxies 56, 96-114 birch trees 126 Bison latifrons 98 Black Sunday 169c bleaching (coral) 110-111 Boltwood, B. B. 45 Bonneville, Lake 62, 146 Bonneville Salt Flats 75-76, 146 boron 76 breadfruit trees 30 Brenner, Mark 118 bristlecone pine 105-107, 106 Bronze Age 14, 125, 127 Bryce National Park, Utah 13 Budyko, Mikhail 27-28 Burns, Will 128 Bush, George W. 172c, 173c

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