is the direct solar flux, at optical depth rx, normal to the direction of incidence defined by po, the cosine of the solar zenith angle. SqX is the incoming solar spectral flux (erg cm-2 s-1 pm-1) at the Earth's orbit. We note that the phase function is divided by 4n sr so that SiX(p) has units of radiance (erg cm-2 s-1
If we take positive in the downwards direction (increasing optical depth), integrate over the incoming direction and use the Eddington approximation Ix = Jx + 3pHx, eqn (3.89), we get
Sx(m) = (1 - ivx)Bx + ivx(Jx + 3gpHx) + ^(1 + 3gpp0)Fidx, (6.113)
where Hx is the second moment of the radiance, Ix, given by eqn (3.93), but now defined by dH
orx where the angle-averaged source function (first moment of the source function) is given by
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