5.7.1 Notes

For a more detail description of the pp chain see Sturrock; and Tayler.

A more detailed discussion on photon escape from the centre of stars may be found in the book by Bohm-Vitense. For more details on the solar cycle see the early work of Eddy.

For the faint-young-Sun paradox and for conditions on the early Earth see §12.2. The article by Walter and Barry in the Sun in Time text by Sonnet et al. and the text itself provide details on solar flux evolution; see also Zahnle and Walker, and Chyba and Sagan.

For solar cycle ultraviolet variations see Lean et al.; Woods and Rottman; and Rottman et al.

For an alternative theory to that of a fainter young Sun see Sackman and Boothroyd, who propose that the Sun was initially more massive (by 1-7%) so that its luminosity was sufficiently high to maintain warm conditions on the primitive Earth.

On solar rotation and age see Skumanich, for stellar activity and rotation see the early work of Willson and Skumanich, for stellar activity and Rossby number see Noyes et al. and the monograph by Cram and Kuhi and references therein.

For the spectral variation of the solar irradiance see also the profile of Thekaekara and Drummond, which can be renormalized to a solar constant of 1366 W m2.

A classical text on spherical astronomy is that of Smart. 5.7.2 References and further reading

Astronomical Almanac (1992). US Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Ayres, T. R. (1997). Evolution of the solar ionizing flux. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 1641-1651.

Barry, D. C. (1988). The chromospheric age dependence of the birthrate, composition, motions, and rotation of late F and G dwarfs within 25 parsecs of the Sun. Astrophys. J., 334, 436-448.

Bohm-Vitense, E. (1992). Introduction to stellar astrophysics. Stellar structure and evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Buser, R. and Kurucz, R. L. (1992). A library of theoretical flux spectra I -Synthetic UBVRI photometry and the metallicity scale for F- to K-type stars. Astron. Astrophys., 264, 557-591.

Chyba, C. and Sagan, C. (1992). Endogenous production, exogenous delivery and impact-shock synthesis of organic molecules: an inventory for the origins of life. Nature, 355, 125-132.

Cram, L. E. and Kuhi, L. V. (1989). FGK stars and T Tauri stars. NASA SP-502, Washington DC.

Eddy, J. A. (1977). Historical evidence for the existence of the solar cycle. In The solar output and its variation. ed. O. R. White, Colorado Assoc. Univ. Press, Boulder.

Friel E., Cayrel de Strobel G., Chmielewski Y., Spite M., Lebre A., Bentolila C. (1993). In search of real solar twins. III. Astron. Astrophys., 274, 825-837.

Gueymard, C. A. (2004). The Suns total and spectral irradiance for solar energy applications and solar radiation models. Solar Energy, 76, 423-453.

Girardi, L., Bressan, A., Bertelli, G. and Chiosi, C. (2000). Evolutionary tracks and isochrones for low- and intermediate-mass stars: From 0.15 to 7 Mq, and from Z = 0.0004 to 0.03. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser., 141, 371-383.

Guinan E. F. and Ribas I. (2002). Our changing Sun: The role of solar nuclear evolution and magnetic activity on Earth's atmosphere and climate. In B. Montesinos, A. Gimenez, Guinan E.F., ed., ASP Conf. Ser., 269, The evolving Sun and its influence on planetary environments, San Francisco.

Hatzianastassiou, N., Fotiadi, A., Matsoukas, C., Drakakis, E., Pavlakis, K. G., Hatzidimitriou and Vardavas, I. M. (2004). Long-term global distribution of Earth's shortwave radiation budget at the top of atmosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 1217-1235.

Lammer, H., Ribas, I., Grießmeier, J.-M., Penz T., Hanslmeier A. and Biernat, H. K. (2004). A brief history of the solar radiation and particle flux evolution. Hvar. Obs. Bull., 28, 139-155.

Lean, J. L., Rottman, G. J., Kyle, H. L., Woods, T. N., Hickey, J. R. and Puga, L. (1997). Detection and parameterization of variations in solar mid- and near-ultraviolet radiation (200-400 nm). J. Geophys. Res., 102, 29939-29956.

Lejeune, Th., Cuisinier, F. and Buser, R. (1997). A standard stellar library for evolutionary synthesis I. Calibration of theoretical spectra. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser., 125, 229-246.

Lemaire, P., Emerich, C., Vial, J.-C., Curdt, W., Schüle, U. and Wilhelm, K., (2005). Variation of the full Sun hydrogen Lyman profiles through solar cycle 23. Adv. Space Res., 35, 384-387.

Messina, S. and Guinan, E. F. (2003). Magnetic activity of six young solar analogues II. Surface differential rotation from long-term photometry. Astron. Astrophys., 409, 1017-1030.

Montesinos B. and Jordan, C. (1993). On magnetic-fields, stellar coronae and dynamo action in late-type dwarfs. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 264, 900-918.

Norton's Star atlas and reference handbook (1998). Prentice Hall, London.

Noyes R. W., Hartmann L. W., Baliunas S. L., Duncan D. K. and Vaughan A. H. (1984). Rotation, convection, and magnetic activity in lower main-sequence stars. Astrophys. J., 279, 763-777.

Ribas, I., Guinan, E. F., Giidel, M. and Audard, M. (2005). Evolution of the solar activity over time and effects on planetary atmospheres: I. High-energy irradiances (1-1700 A). Astrophys. J., 622, 680-700.

Rottman, G. L., Floyd, L., Viereck, R. (2004). Measurement of solar ultraviolet irradiance. In Solar variability and its effect on the Earth's atmosphere and climate system. ed. J. Pap, and coauthors. AGU Monograph Series, Washington DC.

Sagan, C. and Mullen, C. (1972). Earth and Mars: Evolution of atmospheres and surface temperatures. Science, 177, 52-56.

Sagan, C. and Chyba, C. (1997). The early faint sun paradox: Organic shielding of ultraviolet-labile greenhouse gases. Science, 276, 1217-1221.

Sackmann, I.-J. and Boothroyd, A. I. (2003). Our sun. V. A bright young sun consistent with helioseismology and warm temperatures on ancient Earth and Mars. Astrophys. J., 583, 1024-1039.

Skumanich A., (1972). Time scales for Ca II emission decay, rotational braking, and lithium depletion. Astrophys. J., 171, 565-567.

Smart, W. M. (1977). Text book on spherical astronomy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Sonnet, C. P., Giampapa, M. S. and Matthews, M. S. (1991). The Sun in time. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Sturrock, P. A. (ed.) (1985). Physics of the Sun. Vol. 1: The solar interior. D. Reidel, Dordrecht.

Tayler, R. J. (1994). Stars: Their structure and evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Taylor, B. J. (1994). Analyses of archival data for cool dwarfs. I. The solar B-V problem reconsidered. Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacif., 106, 444-451.

Thekaekara, M. P. and Drummond, A. J. (1971). Standard values for the solar constant and its spectral components. Nature Phys. Sci., 229, 6-9.

Vardavas, I. M. (2005). The dependence of Rossby number and XUV-Lya emission with age for solar-like G-type stars. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. Lett., 363, L51-L55.

Walter, F. M. and Barry D. C. (1991). Pre- and main-sequence evolution of solar activity. In Sonnet, C.P., Giampapa, M.S., Matthews, M.S., ed., The Sun in Time, University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Willson, O. C., Skumanich, A. (1964). Dependence of chromospheric activity upon age in main-sequence stars: Additional evidence. Astrophys. J., 140, 14011408.

Wood, B. E., Redfield S., Linsky J. L., Müller H-R. and Zank, G. P. (2005). Stellar Ly alpha emission lines in the Hubble Space Telescope archive: Intrinsic line fluxes and absorption from the heliosphere and astrospheres. Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser., 159, 118-140.

Woods, T. N. and Rottman G. J. (1997). Solar Lyman-a irradiance measurements during two solar cycles. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 8769-8779.

Zahnle, K. J. and Walker, J. C. G. (1982). The evolution of solar ultraviolet luminosity. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 20, 280-292.

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