Articles

Adam, David. "Climate Scientists Issue Dire Warning." Guardian, February 28, 2006. Presents new evidence concerning the ramifications of global warming.

Alley, Richard B. "Abrupt Climate Change." Scientific American 291, no. 5 (November 2004): 62-69. Discusses the great ocean conveyor belt and how global warming could shut it down and trigger another ice age.

Appenzeller, Tim. "The Big Thaw:" National Geographic (June 2007): 58-71. An overview of global melting and what that means for the future.

Applebome, Peter. "A Community Tries to Shrink Its Footprint." New York Times (January 20, 2008). Available online. URL:

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/20/nyregion/20towns.htmR_ r=2&partner=rssnyt<0x 0026>emc=rss&oref=slogin&oref=slogin. Accessed September 21, 2008. Profiles Westport, Connecticut, and the steps that it is taking to become more environmentally responsible.

Barringer, Felicity. "U.S. Given Poor Marks on the Environment." New York Times (January 23, 2008). Available online. URL: http://www. nytimes.com/2008/01/23/washington/23enviro.html. Accessed September 22, 2008. The United States lags behind on environmental responsibility and positive action.

Bindschadler, Robert A., and Charles R. Bentley. "On Thin Ice?" Scientific American (December 2002): 98-105. Discusses the melting rates of the Earth's most massive ice sheets and what controls the rates of disintegration.

Borenstein, Seth. "Hotter Weather Linked to More Extinctions." Discovery News (October 24, 2007). Available online. URL: http://dsc.discov-ery.com/news/2007/10/24/extinctions-warming-print.html. Accessed September 17, 2008. Examines the Earth's past and how scientists study extinctions, as well as what effects today's global warming may have on present life on Earth.

Bosire, Bogonko. "More Than 1 Billion Trees Planted in 2007." Discovery News (November 28, 2007). Available online. URL: http://dsc.discov-ery.com/news/2007/11/28/tree-planting-forests-print.html. Accessed September 17, 2008. Describes how more than 1 billion trees were planted around the world in 2007, with Ethiopia and Mexico leading in the drive to combat climate change.

Bourne, Joel K., Jr. "Green Dreams." National Geographic (October 2007): 38-59. Explores the use of biofuels.

Britt, Robert Roy. "Surprising Side Effects of Global Warming." Live-Science (December 22, 2004). Available online. URL: http://www.live-science.com/environment. Accessed September 17, 2008. Addresses the damage to the landscape from melting permafrost, landslides, and mudslides as a result of global warming.

--. "Global Warming Likely Cause of Worst Mass Extinction Ever."

LiveScience (January 20, 2005). Available online. URL: http://www. livescience.com/environment/050120_great-dying.html. Accessed Sep tember 22, 2008. Presents scientific evidence that past extinctions were related to changing climate.

-. "Caution: Global Warming May Be Hazardous to Your Health."

LiveScience (February 2005). Available online. URL: http://www.live-science.com/environment/050221_warming_heath.html. Accessed September 22, 2008. This article addresses the timely issues of pollution and the effects on human health.

-. "Energy Imbalance Behind Global Warming." LiveScience

(April 28, 2005). Available online. URL: http://www.livescience.com/ environment_050428/solar_energy.html. Accessed September 22, 2008. Looks at existing heat brought on by air pollution and slowly warming the Earth where it will become out of control.

-. "125 Large Northern Lakes Disappear." LiveScience (June

3, 2005). Available online. URL: http://www.livescience.com/ environment/050603_lakes_gone.html. Accessed September 22, 2008. Focuses on lakes in the Arctic that have vanished as temperatures have risen over the past two decades and what effect this is having.

-. "Global Warming Sparks Increased Plant Production in Arctic Lakes." LiveScience (October 24, 2005). Available online. URL: http://www.livescience.com/environment/051024_arctic_lakes.html. Accessed September 17, 2008. Looks at longer growing seasons in the arctic ecosystems as a result of global warming.

-. "Insurance Company Warns of Global Warming's Costs." Live-

Science (November 1, 2005). Available online. URL: http://www.live-science.com/environment/051101_insurance_warning.html. Accessed September 22, 2008. Explores the economic issues behind the destruction caused by global warming.

-. "The Irony of Global Warming: More Rain, Less Water," Live-

Science (November 16, 2005). Available online. URL: http://www. livescience.com/environment/051116_water_shortage.html. Accessed September 22, 2008. Outlines that an enhanced water cycle may not benefit the necessary water supplies.

-. "Conflicting Claims on Global Warming and Why It's All Moot."

LiveScience (February 1, 2006). Available online. URL: http://www. livescience.com/environment/060201_temperature_differences.html.

Accessed September 22, 2008. Presents the pros and cons of global warming.

Carey, Bjorn. "Soot Could Hasten Melting of Arctic Ice." LiveScience (March 28, 2005). Available online. URL: http://www.livescience.com/ environment/050328_arctic-soot.html. Accessed September 22, 2008. Shows how when ice becomes polluted with soot, it changes the reflective properties and accelerates melting in the Arctic.

--. "Arctic Summer Could Be Ice-Free by 2105." LiveScience

(August 23, 2005). Available online. URL: http://www.livescience.com/ environment/050823_ice_free.html. Accessed September 22, 2008. Discusses the accelerated rates of ice melting.

Carlton, Jim. "Is Global Warming Killing the Polar Bears?" Wall Street Journal (December 14, 2005). Available online. URL: http://online.wsj. com/public/article_print/SB113452435089621905-vnekw47PQGtDy-f3iv5XE N71_o5I_20061214.html. Accessed September 22, 2008. Discusses the plight currently facing the polar bears and their survival.

Castle, Stephen, and James Kanter. "Stricter System to Trim Carbon Emissions is Considered in Europe." New York Times (January 22, 2008). Available online. URL: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/22/ business/worldbusiness/22emissions.html. Accessed September 22, 2008. Explores the concept of reducing carbon emissions.

CBS News. "'Monumental' Climate Change?" CBS News (June 19, 2007). Available online. URL: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/06/19/ eveningnews/main2952286.shtml. Accessed September 22, 2008. This article outlines the destruction on the world's fine art as a result of pollution and global warming.

Coleman, Joseph. "Seaweed: The New Carbon Sink?" Discovery News (December 10, 2007). Available online. URL: http://dsc.discovery.com/ news. Accessed September 22, 2008. This article looks at the world's carbon sinks and their potential to offset the effects of global warming.

Culotta, Elizabeth. "Will Plants Profit from High CO2?" Science (May 5, 1995): 654-656. Explores the effects of various CO2 levels on vegetation as a result of global warming and whether they will experience enhanced growth.

D'Agnese, Joseph. "Why Has Our Weather Gone Wild?" Discover (June 2000): 72-78. Focuses on the recent global changes in weather, such as shifting seasons, severe storms, droughts, and heat waves, and their connection to global warming.

Davidson, Sarah. "How Global Warming Can Chill the Planet." Live-Science (December 17, 2004). Available online. URL: http://www. livescience.com/environment/041217_sealevel_rise.html. Accessed September 22, 2008. Explores how ocean's currents can lead to a cooler climate if they are disrupted through the addition of freshwater from melting ice caps and glaciers.

Dean, Cornelia. "The Preservation Predicament." New York Times (January 29, 2008). Available online. URL: http://www.nytimes. com/2008/01/29/science/earth/29habi.html?_r=1&ref=science<0x 0026>oref=slogin. Accessed September 22, 2008. Looks at humans' current management of the landscape and wildlife on it and how habitats are going to survive.

Deutsch, Claudia H. "A Threat So Big, Academics Try Collaboration." New York Times (December 25, 2007). Available online. URL: http:// www.nytimes.com/2007/12/25/business/25sustain.html. Accessed September 22, 2008. Explores the methodology of scientists working together to deal with an immense global issue.

Eilperin, Juliet. "Severe Hurricanes Increasing, Study Finds." Washington Post (September 16, 2005). Available online. URL: http:// www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/09/15/ AR2005091502234.html. Accessed September 22, 2008. Links rising sea temperatures to an increase in more destructive hurricanes.

Epstein, Paul R. "Is Global Warming Harmful to Health?" Scientific American (August 2000): 50-57. Explores the issues of widespread epidemics as a fallout of increased global warming.

Fountain, Henry. "Katrina's Damage to Trees May Alter Carbon Balance." New York Times (November 20, 2007). Available online. URL: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/20/science/20obtree.html. Accessed September 22, 2008. Looks at the ecological implications of the destruction of hundreds of trees on the Gulf Coast as a result of Hurricane Katrina.

--. "More Acidic Ocean Hurts Reef Algae as Well as Corals." New

York Times (January 8, 2008). Available online. URL: http://www. nytimes.com/2008/01/08/science/earth/08obalga.html. Accessed September 22, 2008. As more carbon dioxide is added to the atmosphere, the oceans are becoming acidic and scientists believe they are damaging not only coral, but also reef algae.

Friedman, Thomas L. "It's Too Late for Later." New York Times (December 16, 2007). Available online. URL: http://www.nytimes. com/2007/12/16/opinion/16friedman.html. Accessed September 22, 2008. United Nations specialists and other leaders are warning that action must be taken immediately on global warming.

Gelling, Peter. "Focus of Climate Talks Shifts to Helping Poor Countries Cope." New York Times (December 13, 2007). Available online. URL: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/13/world/13climate.html. Accessed September 22, 2008. Outlines several courses of realistic adaptation for countries faced with the negative effects of global warming.

Gibbs, Walter, and Sarah Lyall. "Gore Shares Peace Prize for Climate Change Work." New York Times (October 13, 2007). Available online. URL: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/13/world/13climate.html. Accessed September 22, 2008. Former vice president Al Gore was awarded the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize on Friday, sharing it with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Goudarzi, Sara. "Allergies Getting Worse Due to Global Warming." LiveScience (November 22, 2005). Available online. URL: http://www. livescience.com/environment/051122_allergy_rise.html. Accessed September 22, 2008. Looks at how a warmer atmosphere can increase the occurrence of allergic systems in humans.

Hansen, James. "Defusing the Global Warming Time Bomb." Scientific American (March 2004): 68-77. Discusses the widespread scale of the problem today and why immediate action is urgently needed.

Heilprin, John. "Study: Earth Is Hottest Now in 2,000 Years; Humans Responsible for Much of the Warming." USA Today (June 23, 2006). Available online. URL: http://www.nytimes. com/2007/12/13/world/13climate.html?partner=rssnyt&emc=rss< 0x0026>pagewanted=all. Accessed September 22, 2008. Discusses paleoclimatology and proxy evidence, as well as correlates past evidence to today's intense storms, heat waves, and other climate conditions.

Hennessey, Kathleen. "Dairy Air: Scientists Measure Cow Gas." Live-Science (July 27, 2005). Available online. URL: http://www.livescience. com/animals/ap_050727_cow_gas.html. Accessed September 22, 2008. A study that looks at agricultural practices and the connections to global warming.

Hertsgaard, Mark. "On the Front Lines of Climate Change." Time (April 9, 2007): 102-109. Explores the concepts of human adaptation to climate change.

Hoffman, Allison, and Gillian Flaccus. "Wildfires Engulf Southern California." Discovery News (October 22, 2007). Available online. URL: http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2007/10/22/wildfires-california-print. html. Accessed September 17, 2008. This article links wildfires with global warming and climate change.

Hoffman, Paul F., and Daniel P. Schrag. "Snowball Earth." Scientific American (January 2000): 68-75. Discusses the Earth when it was covered with ice millions of years ago.

Joling, Dan. "Study: Polar Bears May Turn to Cannibalism." USA Today (June 13, 2006). Available online. URL: http://www.usatoday.com/ weather/research/2006-06-13-polar-bear-cannibalism_x.htm. Accessed September 22, 2008. Discusses how the melting polar ice is keeping polar bears from being able to hunt for food in their traditional hunting grounds.

Kahn, Joseph, and Mark Landler. "China Grabs West's Smoke-Spewing Factories." New York Times (December 21, 2007). Available online. URL: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/21/world/asia/21transfer.html. Accessed September 22, 2008. This article looks at the energy revolution taking place in China.

Kahn, Joseph. "Japan Urges China to Reduce Pollution." New York Times (December 19, 2007). Available online. URL: http://topics.nytimes. com/top/reference/timestopics/people/f/yasuo_fukuda/index.html.

Accessed September 23, 2008. This article focuses on the political implications of global warming between countries.

Kanter, James. "Europe May Ban Imports of Some Biofuel Crops." New York Times (January 15, 2008). Available online. URL: www. nytimes.com/2008/01/15/business/worldbusiness/15biofuel.html?_ r=1&oref=slogin. Accessed September 23, 2008. Discusses a law that would prohibit the importation of fuels derived from crops grown on certain kinds of land.

Karl, Thomas R., Neville Nicholls, and Jonathan Gregory. "The Coming Climate." Scientific American (May 1997): 78-83. Discusses computer models and how they interpret weather patterns of a warmer world.

Karl, Thomas, and Kevin Trenberth. "The Human Impact on Climate." Scientific American (December 1999): 100-105. Focuses on the disruptions people cause in the natural environment and why scientists must begin to monitor and quantify the disruptions now in order to save the future.

Kaufman, Marc. "Research Shines Some Light on Mysteries of Antarctica." Washington Post (February 18, 2007). Available online. URL: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/02/17/ AR2007021701335.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Looks at snowfall, ice melt, and wind systems and how the three components work together in Antarctica.

Kay, Jane. "A Warming World: Climate Change Report." San Francisco Chronicle (February 3, 2007). Available online. URL: http://www. sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2007/02/03/MNGR9NUBLN1. DTL. Accessed September 9, 2008. Focuses on the new report from the IPCC and their warnings of the effects of global warming to come.

Kerr, Jennifer C. "2007 Among Warmest Years Ever in U.S." Discovery News (December 14, 2007). Available online. URL: http://dsc. discovery.com/news/2007/12/14/warmest-year-weather.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Discusses the events of 2007 and the role global warming may have played.

Kluger, Jeffrey. "A Climate of Despair: Special Report, Global Warming." Time (April 9, 2001): 30-36. Discusses the political ramifications of global warming and the need for global cooperation.

--. "Is Global Warming Fueling Katrina?" Time (August

29, 2005). Available online. URL: http://www.time.com/time/ printout/0,8816,1099102,00.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Looks at global warming as a cause of strengthening hurricanes.

--. "Global Warming Heats Up." Time (March 26, 2006). Available online. URL: http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,1176980,00. html. Accessed September 23. 2008. Discusses several environmental aspects of the environment that point to the effects of global warming.

-. "What Now?" Time (April 9, 2007): 52-60. Discusses the problem from an international aspect and how everyone can be involved in the solution of the problem.

Krauss, Clifford. "As Ethanol Takes Its First Steps, Congress Proposes a Giant Leap." New York Times (December 18, 2007). Available online. URL: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/18/washington/18ethanol. html?n=Top/News/Science/Topics/ Global%20Warming. Accessed September 23, 2008. Discusses how the U.S. Congress is on the verge of writing into law one of the most ambitious dictates ever issued to American business: To create a new industry capable of converting agricultural wastes and other plant material into automotive fuel.

Lemonick, Michael D. "Life in the Greenhouse." Time (April 9, 2001): 24-29. Outlines the current signs of global warming and the effects it will have on the environment.

-. "Why You Can't Ignore the Changing Climate." Parade.com (June

25, 2006). Available online. URL: http://www.parade.com/articles/ editions/2006/edition_06-25-2006. Accessed September 23, 2008. Points out that evidence of climate change is everywhere and not only needs to be taken seriously, but everyone needs to do their part to help fix it.

LiveScience."Global Warming Could Overwhelm Storm Drains." (October 11, 2005). Available online. URL: http://www.livescience.com/ environment/051011_culverts.html. Accessed September 23, 2007.

Social and management aspects of flooding during extreme storm events.

--. "Darker Days in China as Sun Gets Dimmer." (January

20, 2006). Available online. URL: http://www.livescience.com/ environment/060119_dark_china.html. Accessed September 23,

2007. This article discusses the hazards of increased fossil fuel use and pollution.

Marshall, Carolyn. "San Francisco Fleet Is All Biodiesel." New York Times (December 2, 2007). Available online. URL: http://www.nytimes. com/2007/12/02/us/02diesel.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Discusses how San Francisco has converted all its diesel vehicles to biodiesel in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

--. "Carbon's New Math." National Geographic (October, 2007):

32-37. Explores ways to use technology to reduce the effects of global warming.

Mouawad, Jad. "OPEC Gathering Finds High Oil Prices More Worrisome Than Welcome." New York Times (November 17, 2007). Available online. URL: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/17/ business/17opec.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. This article discusses the economic realities of climbing oil prices and issues concerning a global economic recession.

--. "Oil Demand, the Climate and the Energy Ladder." New York

Times (January 19, 2008). Available online. URL: http://www.nytimes. com/2008/01/19/business/19interview.html. Accessed September 23,

2008. An article discussing the future energy demands and the need for setting limits on carbon emissions.

Neergaard, Lauran. "Greenhouse Gas at 650,000-year High." LiveScience (November 25, 2005). Available online. URL: http://www.livescience. com/environment/ap_051125_greenhouse_gas.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Looks at the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica and relates evidence found by scientists in the ice cores to the conditions humans face today.

New York Times. "Connecting the Global Warming Dots." (January 14, 2007). Available online. URL: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/14/

weekinreview/14basics.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Presents several reasons why global warming is occurring.

Nicklen, Paul. "Life at the Edge." National Geographic (June 2007): 32-55. Explores the shrinking sea ice at the North Pole and its effects on the ecosystem.

O'Hanlon, Larry. "U.S. Groundwater Drying Up" Discovery News (October 25, 2007). Available online. URL: http://dsc.discovery.com/ news/2007/10/25/ground-water-drought-print.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Discusses the impacts global warming is having on the United States and the supplies of water that are necessary to support communities.

--. "Desalinated Water: Great to Drink, Bad for Crops" Discovery

News (November 8, 2008). Available online. URL: http://dsc.discovery. com/news/2007/11/08/desalination-agriculture-print.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Discusses the issues surrounding desalination of ocean water in view of combating water shortages.

Revkin, Andrew C. "Climate Experts Warn of More Coastal Building" New York Times (July 25, 2006). Available online. URL: http://www. nytimes.com/2006/07/25/science/earth/25coast.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Explores the economic and social issues of building in coastal areas prone to hurricane damage.

--."Global Warming Trend Continues in 2006, Climate Agencies

Say." New York Times (December 15, 2006). Available online. URL: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/15/science/15climate.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Reports on new record-setting heat waves worldwide.

--. "A New Middle Stance Emerges in Debate over Climate" New

York Times (January 1, 2007). Available online. URL: http://www. nytimes.com/2007/01/01/science/01climate.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Introduces a new middle-of-the-road group representing a more moderate view on global warming.

--. "U.S. Predicting Steady Increase for Emissions" New York

Times (March 3, 2007). Available online. URL: http://www.nytimes. com/2007/03/03/science/03climate.html. Accessed September 23,

2008. Discusses information recently released from the White House predicting that emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are expected to increase over the next decade.

--. "Many Arctic Plants Have Adjusted to Big Climate Changes,

Study Finds." New York Times (June 15, 2007). Available online. URL: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/15/science/15arctic.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Discusses the concept that some plants may be able to shift long distances to follow the climate conditions for which they are best adapted as those conditions move under the influence of global warming.

--. "Arctic Melt Unnerves the Experts." New York Times

(October 2, 2007). Available online. URL: http://www.nytimes. com/2007/10/02/science/earth/02arct.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Presents information confirming that Arctic ice is melting faster than scientists originally expected and the global consequences of it.

--. "As China Goes, So Goes Global Warming." New York Times

(December 16, 2007). Available online. URL: http://www.nytimes. com/2007/12/16/weekinreview/16revkin.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Addresses the issue of clean energy for China.

--. "Connecting the Global Warming Dots." New York Times

(January 14, 2007). Available online. URL: http://www.nytimes. com/2007/01/14/weekinreview/14basics.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Presents the basics of what global warming is and why it is happening.

--. "Issuing a Bold Challenge to the U.S. over Climate." New York

Times (January 22, 2008). Available online. URL: http://www.nytimes. com/2008/01/22/science/earth/22conv.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Explores the international political arena and the pressure being put on the United States to become more involved with addressing global warming issues.

Rosenthal, Elisabeth, and Andrew C. Revkin. "Panel Issues Bleak Report on Climate Change." New York Times (February 2, 2007). Available online. URL: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/02/science/

earth/02cnd-climate.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Review of the IPCC's newly issued report on global warming.

Rosenthal, Elisabeth. "Science Panel Calls Global Warming 'Unequivocal!"' New York Times (February 3, 2007). Available online. URL: http:// www.nytimes.com/2007/02/03/science/earth/03climate.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Profiles the IPCC's latest report on global warming.

--. "U.N. Report Describes Risks of Inaction on Climate Change."

New York Times (November 17, 2007). Available online. URL: http:// www.nytimes.com/2007/11/17/science/earth/17climate.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Focuses on the attention the United Nations is trying to gain in order to get individual countries to contribute toward the solution of global warming.

--. "U.N. Chief Seeks More Climate Change Leadership." New York

Times (November 18, 2007). Available online. URL: http://www. nytimes.com/2007/11/18/science/earth/18climatenew.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Reviews the necessity of effective political leadership in order to back up the effort to stop global warming if it is to succeed.

Schirber, Michael. "Nature's Wrath: Global Deaths and Costs Swell." LiveScience (November 1, 2004). Available online. URL: http://www. livescience.com/environment/041101_disaster_report.html. Accessed August 13, 2008. Examines why weather-related disasters are more prominent now than they were.

--. "Global Disaster Hotspots: Who Gets Pummeled." LiveScience

(December 7, 2004). Available online. URL: http://www.livescience. com/environment/050107_disaster_hotspots.htm. Accessed September 23, 2008. Discusses the most likely areas in the world to be negatively affected by natural disasters.

--. "Longer Airline Flights Proposed to Combat Global Warming."

LiveScience (January 26, 2005). Available online. URL: http://www. livescience.com/environment/050126_contrail_climate.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Investigates plans to limit the effects of contrails in the atmosphere from airline traffic.

ScienceDaily. "From Icehouse to Hothouse: Melting Ice and Rising Carbon Dioxide Caused Climate Shift." (February 27, 2007). Available online. URL: http://www.sciencedaily.com/ releases/2007/02/0702211358.htm. Accessed September 23, 2008. Discusses modeling of paleoclimates in order to understand changes happening today.

Schmid, Randolph E. "Greenhouse Gas Hits Record High." LiveScience (March 15, 2006). Available online. URL: http://www.livescience.com/ environment/ap_060315_carbon_dioxide.htm. Accessed September 23, 2008. Discusses how the measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide have changed, especially since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.

-. "Global Warming Differences Resolved." LiveScience (May 2,

2006). Available online. URL: http://www.livescience.com/environ-ment/ap_060502_global_warming.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Discusses how former discrepancies in temperature calculations between satellite and radiosonde data used for global warming analysis have finally been identified and corrected.

Silverman, Fran. "What's a Ski Area to Do as It Warms? Adapt." New York Times (January 13, 2008). Available online. URL: http://www. nytimes.com/2008/01/13/nyregion/nyregionspecial2/13skict.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Looks at global warming's impact on the recreation industry.

Simons, Marlise. "Fungus Once Again Threatens French Cave Paintings." New York Times (December 9, 2007). Available online. URL: http:// www.nytimes.com/2007/12/09/world/europe/09cave.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Looks at the cultural effects of global warming and why the world's art may be in danger.

Stevens, William K. "On the Climate Change Beat, Doubt Gives Way to Certainty." New York Times (February 6, 2007). Available online. URL: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/06/science/earth/06clim.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. As research continues, there is enough evidence that scientists can no longer say the climate is not warming up.

Struck, Doug. "NOAA Scientists Say Arctic Ice Is Melting Faster Than Expected" Washington Post (September 7, 2007). Available online. URL: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/ article/2007/09/06/AR2007090602499.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Evidence that predictions of future ice loss may be too conservative.

Sturm, Matthew, Donald K. Perovich, and Mark C. Serreze. "Meltdown in the North." Scientific American (October 2003): 60-67. Current melting in the Arctic regions, what it is doing to the ecosystems, and how that will affect the rest of the world.

Than, Ker. "Animals and Plants Adapting to Climate Change." Live-Science (June 21, 2005). Available online. URL: http://www.livescience. com/environment/050621_warming_list.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. How some species have been able to adapt to changing systems.

--. "How Global Warming Is Changing the Wild Kingdom" Live-

Science (June 21, 2005). Available online. URL: http://www.livescience. com/environment/050621_warming_changes.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Looks at ecological issues among mammals, fish, insects, and other types of wildlife.

--. "The 100-Year Forecast: Stronger Storms Ahead" LiveScience

(October 13, 2005). Available online. URL: http://www.livescience. com/environment/051013_stronger_storms.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Presents the concept of an 'enhanced' water cycle and more severe storms as a result of global warming in the future.

--. "Polar Meltdown Near: Seas Could Rise 3 Feet Per Century"'

LiveScience (March 23, 2006). Available online. URL: http://www. livescience.com/environment/060323_ice_melt.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. This article explores the implication of sea-level rise as a result of the melting of polar ice caps.

--. "Global Warming Weakens Pacific Trade Winds" LiveScience

(May 3, 2006). Available online. URL: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/ id/12612965/. Accessed September 23, 2008. Outlines why the trade winds are weakening as a result of global warming.

Tierney, John. "In 2008, a 100 Percent Chance of Alarm." New York Times (January 1, 2008). Available online. URL: http://www.nytimes. com/2008/01/01/science/01tier.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. An overview of why action needs to be taken immediately to deal with global warming on a global scale.

Vergano, Dan. "Global Warming Stoked '05 Hurricanes, Study Says." USA Today (June 25, 2006). Available online. URL: http://www.usato-day.com/tech/science/2006-06-22-hurricane-blame_x.htm. Accessed September 23, 2008. Presents the reasons why climate scientists believe that global warming helped fuel 2005's destructive hurricane season.

Wald, Matthew L. "Cleaner Coal Is Attracting Some Doubts." New York Times (February 21, 2007). Available online. URL: http://www.nytimes. com/2007/02/21/business/21coal.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Explores the use of new technology called 'gasification' to operate new coal plants and whether it will be as environmentally friendly as originally thought.

--. "Study Details How U.S. Could Cut 28% of Greenhouse Gases."

New York Times (November 30, 2007). Available online. URL: http:// royaldutchshellplc.com/2007/12/01/the-new-york-times-study-details-how-us-could-cut-2 8-of-greenhouse-gases/. Accessed September 23, 2008. Outlines how the United States could reduce the greenhouse gases it generates at a reasonable cost with only small technological innovations.

Walsh, Bryan. "The Fire This Time." Time (November 5, 2007): 32-43. Wildfires in California and their connections to climate change.

Warburton, Louise. "No Where Else to Go—Climate Changes and Parrots: Can they Adapt to Survive?" Bird Talk (January 2007): 22-85. Discusses the ecological impact global warming is having on the world's bird population.

Williams, Gisela. "Resorts Prepare for a Future Without Skis." New York Times (December 2, 2007). Available online. URL: http://travel. nytimes.com/2007/12/02/travel/02skiglobal.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Discusses the economic ramifications of global warming on the tourist industry.

Williams, Jack. "Drilling Uncovers Past, Maybe the Future." USA Today (January 23, 1999). Available online. URL: http://www.usatoday.com/ weather/resources/coldscience/adril.htm. Accessed September 23, 2008. This article reviews what climatologists have learned about climate change through the study of climate from the past via ice cores.

--. "Greenland's Ice Tells of Past Climates, Maybe Ancient Life." USA

Today (August 30, 2004). Available online. URL: http://www.usatoday. com/weather/resources/coldscience/2004-08-30-n-grip-main_x.htm. Accessed September 23, 2008. This article reviews the importance of paleoclimatology.

Woollard, Rob. "California Wildfires Force Mass Evacuations." Discovery News (October 23, 2007). Available online. URL: http://dsc.discovery. com/news/2007/10/23/california-wildfire-print.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Links the recent tragic wildfires of California and the American Southwest with drought and global warming.

Zimmer, Carl. "Migration Interrupted: Nature's Rhythms at Risk." New York Times (January 1, 2008). Available online. URL: http://www. nytimes.com/2008/01/01/science/01migr.html. Accessed September 23, 2008. Discusses migration corridors and how global warming is affecting them.

WEB SITES Global Warming

Climate Ark. Available online. URL: www.climateark.org. Accessed October 23, 2007. Promotes public policy to address global climate change through reduction of carbon and other emissions, energy conservation, alternative energy sources, and ending deforestation.

Climate Solutions. Available online. URL: www.climatesolutions.org. Accessed October 23, 2007. Practical solutions to global warming.

Environmental Defense Fund. Available online. URL: www.environ-mentaldefense.org. Accessed October 26, 2007. An organization started by a handful of environmental scientists in 1967 that provides quality information and helpful resources on understanding global warming and other crucial environmental issues.

Environmental Protection Agency. Available online. URL: www.epa.gov. Accessed October 26, 2007. Provides information about EPA's efforts and programs to protect the environment; it offers a wide array of information on global warming.

European Environment Agency. Sponsored by the European Environment Agency in Copenhagen, Denmark. Available online. URL: www. eea.europa.eu/themes/climate. Accessed October 26, 2007. Posts their reports on topics such as air quality, ozone depletion, and climate change.

Global Warming: Focus on the Future. Available online. URL: www. enviroweb.org. Accessed October 26, 2007. Offers statistics and photography of global warming topics.

HotEarth.Net. Available online. URL: www.net.org/warming. Accessed October 26, 2007. Features informational articles on the causes of global warming, its harmful effects, and solutions that could stop it.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Available online. URL: http://www.ipcc.ch/. Accessed October 26, 2007. Offers current information on the science of global warming and recommendations on practical solutions and policy management.

NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies. Available online. URL: www.giss.nasa.gov. Accessed October 26, 2007. This Web site provides a large database of information, research, and other resources.

NOAA's National Climatic Data Center. Available online. URL: www. ncdc.noaa.gov. Accessed October 26, 2007. Offers a multitude of resources and information on climate, climate change, global warming.

Ozone Action. Available online. URL: www.semcog.org/services/ ozoneaction/kids.htm. Accessed October 26, 2007. Provides information on air quality by focusing on ozone, the atmosphere, environmental issues, and related health issues.

Scientific American. Available online. URL: www.sciam.com. Accessed October 23, 2007. An online magazine that often presents articles concerning climate change and global warming.

Tyndall Centre at University of East Anglia. Available online. URL: http://www.tyndall.ac.uk. Accessed October 26, 2007. Offers information on climate change and is considered one of the leaders in UK research on global warming.

Union of Concerned Scientists. Available online. URL: www.ucsusa.org. Accessed October 26, 2007. This Web site offers a quality resource sections on global warming and ozone depletion.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Sponsored by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Available online. URL: http://unfccc.int/2860.php. Accessed October 26, 2007. A spectrum on climate change information and policy.

U.S. Global Change Research Program. Available online. URL: www. usgcrp.gov. Accessed October 26, 2007. Provides information on the current research activities of national and international science programs that focus on global monitoring of climate and ecosystem issues.

World Wildlife Foundation Climate Change Campaign. Available online. URL: www.worldwildlife.org/climate/. Accessed October 26, 2007. Contains information on what various countries are doing and not doing to deal with global warming.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Energy Information Administration. Available online. URL: www.eia. doe.gov/environment.html. Accessed October 26, 2007. Lists official environmental energy-related emissions data and environmental analyses from the U.S. government. Contains carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide emissions data and other greenhouse reports.

World Resources Institute—Climate, Energy & Transport. Available online. URL: www.wri.org/climate/publications.cfm. Accessed October 26, 2007. This Web site offers a collection of reports on global technology deployment to stabilize emissions, agriculture, and greenhouse gas mitigation, climate science discoveries, and renewable energy.

index

Italic page numbers indicate illustrations or maps. Page numbers followed by c denote entries in the chronology.

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