A

abrupt climate change 70, 120-121 adaptation 171-172 aerosols 60, 69, 132 agriculture xvi, 164-165 albedo and Arctic ice melt 138-139, 143 of clouds 62 defined 17

and Faint Young Sun Paradox 56 and global energy balance 68 and infrared radiation 58 American Geophysical Union 14 Andes Mountains 44 ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) 120 Annan, James 127

Antarctic climate change 14, 170-171, 177c

Antarctic ice sheet 176c, 178c, 179c anthropogenic climate change. See human activity Arctic warming/ice melt 21, 121, 138144, 141, 142, 153 Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) 120 aridity 50-51

Arrhenius, Svante 7, 123-124, 175c Atlantic Ocean 46, 120 atmosphere conductivity in 64 convection in 65-66 Coriolis force and 76-79, 77 El NiƱo 84, 85-93, 86, 88-90 extreme weather events 105-109, 107, 108

large-scale features of winds 78-83, 80 local motions affecting climate 94-109 orbital variations and 72-76 planetary/global motions 72-93 regional wind systems 95-99, 96-97

solar energy's interaction with 18 structure of 10-14, 11 transport of elements in 29 atmospheric circulation 83-88, 84 atmospheric energy 62-66, 63-65 atmospheric gases 1 atmospheric pressure 81, 83-84, 95,

99-100, 109 atmospheric winds 78-83, 80 Australia 105 axial tilt 74-75

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