V

Variable ocean, 350 1 Variable solar activity, 44 Variations of the Earth's orbital

Characteristics, 44, 103 21 Vascular plants, 300 301, 406 Vegetation continuous description (VECODE), 118

Ventilation of the deep ocean, 354, 357 8 Vertical temperature structure, 157 Visible radiation, 4, 5 Volcanic activity, 77 99 Volcanic effect on atmospheric circulation, 88 92

Volcanic emissions, 77 8, 79 Volcanic eruptions, 32, 37, 77 8, 79 80, 82, 84 5, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95 6, 98 9, 330 1, 343 Volcanic explosivity index (VEI), 77 Volcanic forcing, 79, 84, 85 6, 88, 90, 92, 97, 99

Volcanic impact on ocean, 83, 92 6

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