The Role of Atmospheric Gases in Global Warming

1. Introduction 3

2. Origin of the Greenhouse Effect: 'Primary' and 'Secondary' Effects 4

3. The Physical Chemistry Properties of Greenhouse Gases 9

4. The Lifetime of a Greenhouse Gas in the Earth's Atmosphere 15

5. General Comments on Long Lived Greenhouse Gases 17

6. Conclusion 18 References 19

2. The Role of Widespread Surface Solar Radiation Trends in Climate Change: Dimming and Brightening

S. Cohen

1. Introduction 22

2. Solar Radiation and its Measurement 22

3. Trends in Surface Solar Radiation or Global Dimming and Brightening 26

4. The Causes of Dimming and Brightening 32

5. The Influence of Solar Radiation Changes (Dimming and Brightening) on Climate 33

6. Conclusions 38 References 38

3. The Role of Space Weather and Cosmic Ray Effects in Climate Change

1. Introduction 44

2. Solar Activity, Cosmic Rays and Climate Change 45

3. The Influence on the Earth's Climate of the Solar System Moving Around the Galactic Centre and Crossing Galaxy Arms 65

4. The Influence of Molecular Dust Galactic Clouds on the

Earth's Climate 65

5. The Influence of Interplanetary Dust Sources on the Earth's Climate 67

6. Space Factors and Global Warming 68

7. The Influence of Asteroids on the Earth's Climate 70

8. The Influence of Nearby Supernova on the Earth's Climate 70

9. Discussion and Conclusions 71 References 74

4. The Role of Volcanic Activity in Climate and Global Change

G. Stenchikov

1. Introduction 77

2. Aerosol Loading, Spatial Distribution and Radiative Effect 79

3. Volcanoes and Climate 82

4. Summary 98 References 99

5. The Role of Variations of the Earth's Orbital Characteristics in Climate Change

L. J. Lourens and E. Tuenter

1. Introduction 103

2. Astronomical Parameters 104

3. Orbital Induced Climate Change 112

4. Conclusion 120 References 121

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