The Extended Regions with Similar Climate but Local Endemism

The main examples are the extensive tropical rain forests. Although the climate and the physiognomy of the vegetation can be very similar over large areas, there can be a considerable amount of local endemism. This endemism is concentrated on the higher tree trunks, and not in the canopy (where wind moves the diaspores) and not at the various habitats at ground level (where bryophytes usually dominate and light conditions are poor). The endemic species usually have large acospores, of the order of 0.1 mm diameter. The risks to these lichen involved in a climate change, are that large expanses of habitat will change simultaneously, and the species with large diaspores have little chance of reaching a relatively remote suitable habitat. Incidentally, this risk may be small compared to the more direct and imminent risk of habitat destruction by logging. Furthermore, it has been pointed out by Zotz and Baader [9] that if tropical coastal regions become warmer, no species may continue to exist that are capable of occupying the habitats that become available as a result of other species shifting to higher elevations.

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