Sea Temperature Change as an Indicator of Global Change

1. Introduction: Role of Ocean, Mechanisms and Correction of Bias 337

2. Long Term Trends in Sea Temperature: The Historical Context 341

3. Global and Regional Patterns of Sea Temperature over the Last

100 150 Years 343

4. Conclusion: Anthropogenic Influence 345 References 346

20. Ocean Current Changes as an Indicator of Global Change

T. Kanzow and M. Visbeck

1. Introduction 349

2. The Variable Ocean 350

3. Oceanographers' Tools 351

4. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation 353

5. The AMOC's Role in Heat Transport, Oceanic Uptake of Carbon and Ventilation of the Deep Ocean 357

6. Can we Detect Changes in the AMOC? Is the AMOC Changing Already? 361

7. Conclusion 362 References 364

21. Ocean Acidification as an Indicator for Climate Change

C. Turley and H. S. Findlay

1. Introduction 367

2. Evidence from Observations 370

3. Model Predictions of Future Change 374

4. Impacts 374

5. Biogeochemical Cycling and Feedback to Climate 381

6. Adaptation, Recovery and Mitigation 383

7. Conclusion 385 References 387

22. Ice Sheets: Indicators and Instruments of Climate Change

1. Introduction 391

2. Sea level and Ice 391

3. How Ice Sheets Work 394

4. Summary 398 References 399

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