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Saline water, 351, 354 5, 356 Salinity, 95, 96, 98 9, 118, 133, 138, 244, 271 2, 274, 285, 349 50, 356, 360, 368 9, 370, 376, 378, 416, 418 Scale of problems, 313 14 Sea level:

history, 333, 411 and ice, 391 4

rise, 93, 113 14, 254, 256, 266, 271, 273, 275, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330 1, 333 4, 381, 391, 393, 395, 396, 397 8, 399,410,411 13,415 18,420,421 rise and coastal systems, 411 12 rising, 325 32 Sea life, 233 48

Sea surface temperature (SST), 84, 87 8, 129, 149, 155, 158 9, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 236, 237 8, 241 2, 246 7, 248, 254, 256, 258, 265, 270, 271, 286, 287, 291, 337 8, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343 4, 350, 351, 375, 384, 410 411, 416, 419, 420 Sea temperature, 29, 128, 244, 254, 256, 267,

283, 287 8, 341 3, 345 Sea temperature change, 337 45 Sexual selection, 192 3 SF5CF3, 10, 11, 14, 16, 18 19 Simulated climate change and plant disease,

430 1,435 Soil erosion, 312, 320 Soil moisture, 36, 38, 223 4, 310, 318 Solar activity, 44, 45 7, 51 2, 53 4, 55 8, 63,

69 70, 71, 72 Solar flux energy, 5

Solar Irradiance, 25, 36 7, 45 6, 47, 49, 50, 51, 68, 93

Solar Radiation, 33 6, 37, 47, 70, 78, 300 Solar Surface radiation, 21 38 Sorghum, 315, 316, 317 18 South Africa, 62, 288, 314 Southern annular mode (SAM), 80, 88, 166 Southern Hemisphere (SH), 28, 88, 104, 112, 119, 132, 136, 137, 138, 148, 149, 153, 154, 158, 159, 160, 167, 170, 175, 287 8, 292, 299 300, 344, 352, 358 Space factors, 68 70, 71, 72, 73 Space weather, 43 73 Spatial changes, 218 Spatial climate variation, 206 209 Spatial mismatches, 216, 218, 220 2, 224 5 SST forcing, 158 9

Stefan Boltzman equation, 22 3 Stefan's Law, 4 5

Stratosphere Mesosphere Explorer (SME), 80 Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment

(SAGE), 80, 81 Stratospheric aerosol measurement (SAM), 80, 88, 166

Stratospheric warming, 84 92 Subtropical jets, 148, 149, 150, 158 Sunshine duration (SSD), 24 5, 31 Sun's irradiation flux energy, 44 Sunspots, 45, 49, 50, 51 3, 56, 57, 58, 60, 61,

69 70, 109 Supernova, 45, 70, 71 2 Surface radiation, 24 5, 26, 29, 37, 38 Susceptible host, 333, 426

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