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Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), 158, 201, 245, 432 3

Pacific North American (PNA) pattern, 166,

170, 171 2, 203 Pacific Ocean, 118, 119 20, 245, 268 Paleocene, 119 20, 133 4, 200 Paleocene/Eocene Thermal maximum

(PETM), 120 Pan evaporation, 22, 29, 34, 35, 36 Partial migration, 189

311, 312, 320 Pelagic biodiversity, 245 6, 270 Pelagic ecosystems, 233 4, 235, 237 8,

246 7, 248 Pelagic phenology, 240 1 Pelagic productivity, 241 5 Penman equation, 34, 35 Perennial crops, 318 Phanerozoic glaciations, 131, 132 3 Phenology, 86, 200 201,217,219,220,240 1, 242, 247, 253, 275, 298, 299 300, 303, 311, 428 Phylogeography, 210

376, 382 3 Planck's Law, 22 Plankton abundance, 241 6 Planktonic ecosystems, 233 48 Plant:

disease, 311, 425 3 ecology, 297 303 growth, 136 7, 200, 302 303 pathogens, 425 3

reproduction, 308 13,315,326 7,429,431 responses to climate change, 298 Plasmodiophora brassicae, 310 Pleistocene, 113, 114, 115 16, 120, 136 7,

200, 210, 256 Pliocene, 105, 116, 129, 134, 139, 210, 256, 341, 344

Polar ozone and aerosol measurement

(POAM), 80 Poleward expansion, 146, 149 50, 155 6 Positive forcing, 48 Potato late blight, 425 6 Precession, 103 104, 105, 106 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 117, 118, 119, 135, 137, 138 Pressure gradient, 147 Primary greenhouse gases, 5 6, 9, 10 Proterozoic, 128, 129, 131 2 Pyranometer, 24

Quasibiennial oscillation (QBO), 83, 85 6, 92,

173, 176 Quaternary icehouse, 134 5

Radiative efficiency, 11, 12, 13, 15, 19 Radiative forcing, 11, 12 13, 14, 18, 27, 29, 32, 33, 72, 79, 81, 82, 83, 86, 87, 94, 97, 98, 343 4 Rate determining process, 16 Recent impact of sea level rise, 416 18 Relative sea level rise, 412 13,415,417 18, 421

Reproduction, 181, 189 93, 201 202, 235, 287, 290 1, 292, 298, 308 13, 315, 426 7, 429, 431 Reproduction and recruitment, 290 1 Rice, 310, 316 17

Rising sea level, 291, 320, 325 34, 396,

410 411, 415 Role of ocean mechanisms, 337 41 Russia, 26, 33, 81, 187, 188, 313, 317

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