Ocean Acidification as an Indicator for Climate Change

Carol Turley and Helen S. Findlay

Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH, United Kingdom

1. Introduction

1.1. Carbonate Chemistry

1.2. Combined Impacts of Ocean Acidification and Climate Change

2. Evidence from Observations

2.1. Evidence from Geological and Ice Core Records

2.2. Evidence from Long Term Oceanographic Time Series

2.3. Evidence from Oceanographic Cruises

3. Model Predictions of Future


4. Impacts

4.1. Past Observations

4.2. Current Observations

4.3. Experimental Observations

4.4. Coral Ecosystems and Their Services

4.5. Combined Impacts

5. Biogeochemical Cycling and Feedback to Climate

5.1. Changes to the Ocean Carbon Cycle

5.2. Changes to Ocean Nutrient Cycles

5.3. Changes to Flux of Other Climate Reactive Gases from the Ocean

6. Adaptation, Recovery and Mitigation

6.1. Adaptation

6.2. Recovery

6.3. Mitigation

7. Conclusion References

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