Lichens as an Indicator of Climate and Global Change

A. Aptroot

1. Introduction 401

2. Predicted Effects 402

3. Observed Effects 402

4. Uncertain Effects 403

5. Habitats with Vulnerable Lichens 405

6. Conclusion 407 References 408

24. Coastline Degradation as an Indicator of Global Change

R. J. Nicholls, C. Woodroffe and V. Burkett

1. Introduction 409

2. Sea Level Rise and Coastal Systems 411

3. Climate Change and Global/Relative Sea Level Rise 412

4. Increasing Human Utilisation of the Coastal Zone 413

5. Climate Change, Sea Level Rise and Resulting Impacts 415

6. Recent Impacts of Sea Level Rise and Climate Change 416

7. Global Warming and Coasts at Latitudinal Extremes 418

8. The Challenge to Understand Contemporary Impacts 420

9. Concluding Remarks 421 References 422

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