Climate Change and Temporal and Spatial Mismatches in Insect Communities

S. L. Pelini, K. M. Prior, D. J. Parker, J. D. K. Dzurisin, R. L. Lindroth and J. J. Hellmann

1. Introduction 215

2. Direct Effects of Climate Change on Insects 217

3. Host Plant Mediated Effects on Insects 219

4. Predator Mediated Effects on Insect Populations 222

5. Climate Change and Insect Pests 225

6. Conclusion 226 References 227

12. Sea Life (Pelagic and Planktonic Ecosystems) as an Indicator of Climate and Global Change

M. Edwards

1. Pelagic and Planktonic Ecosystems 233

2. Observed Impacts on Pelagic and Planktonic Ecosystems 237

3. Conclusion and Summary of Key Indicators 246 References 248

13. Changes in Coral Reef Ecosystems as an Indicator of Climate and Global Change

1. Introduction 253

2. Tropical Coral Reef Ecosystems 254

3. The Associated Fauna of Coral Reefs 258

4. Conclusion 260 References 260

14. Changes in Marine Biodiversity as an Indicator of Climate Change

1. Introduction 263

2. Climate Change and the Oceans 264

3. Effects of Climate Change on Biodiversity 265

4. Cumulative Impacts and Indirect Effects of Climate

Change 272

5. Biodiversity as Insurance against Climate Change

Impacts 274

6. Conclusions 275

References 276

15. Intertidal Indicators of Climate and Global Change

N. Mieszkowska

1. Introduction 281

2. Climate Change and Biogeography 283

3. Mechanisms 289

4. Additional Impacts of Global Change 291

5. Conclusions 292 References 292

16. Plant Ecology as an Indicator of Climate and Global Change

1. Introduction 297

2. Changes in Phenology 299

3. Changes in Distribution 300

4. Community Composition 301

5. Plant Growth 302

6. Conclusions 303 References 304

17. The Impact of Climate and Global Change on Crop Production

1. Introduction 307

2. Impact on Plant Growth and Reproduction 308

3. Scale of the Problems 313

4. Climate Change Models 314

5. Winners and Losers 315

6. Adaptation 320 References 322

18. Rising Sea Levels as an Indicator of Global Change

R. Gehrels

1. Introduction 325

2. Is Sea Level Rising? 325

3. Why is Sea Level Rising? 328

4. Are Contemporary Rates of Sea level Rise Unusual? 333

5. Conclusion 334 References 334

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