Changes in the Atmospheric Circulation as Indicator of Climate Change

T. Reichler

1. Introduction 145

2. The General Circulation of the Atmosphere 147

3. The Poleward Expansion of the Tropical Circulation 149

4. The Decreasing Intensity of the Tropical Circulation 155

5. Emerging Mechanisms 155

6. Connection to Extratropical Circulation Change 159

7. Outstanding Problems and Conclusions 160 References 162

8. Weather Pattern Changes in the Tropics and Mid-Latitudes as an Indicator of Global Changes

1. Introduction 165

2. Observed Changes in Extra Tropical Patterns 166

3. Changes in Tropical Patterns 170

4. Conclusion 178 References 179

9. Bird Ecology as an Indicator of Climate and Global Change

W. Fiedler

1. Introduction 181

2. Indicators of Change 182

3. Conclusion 193 References 193

10. Mammal Ecology as an Indicator of Climate Change

M. M. Humphries

1. Introduction: A Primer on Mammal Thermoregulation and Climate

Impacts 197

Climate Change: Observed Impacts on Planet Earth

2. Demonstrated Impacts of Climate Change on Mammals 199

3. Linking Time and Space in Mammal Climate Responses 210 References 211

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