C

382, 383, 384 Carbonate chemistry, 367 71, 375, 383, 386

Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, 7, 22, 115,

117, 299, 308 309, 310, 316, 319, 320 Carbon isotope, 119 20, 128, 133 4 Cenozoic, 112, 119, 130, 133 4, 205 CF2Cl2, 9, 10, 11, 14 CH4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15 16, 18 Changes in distribution, 282, 283 4, 300 301 Changes in phenology, 201, 247, 299 300 Chinese agriculture, 317 Chlorine monoxide (ClO) free radical, 8 Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 3 4, 10 Circulation, driving mechanisms, 354 7 Cirrus hole, 58 60

Climate change models, 184, 311, 313,

314 15, 317 18 Climate models, 81, 83 4, 93, 129, 315, 359,

360 1, 363 Climatic oscillations, 104, 237 8, 245 Clouds, 8, 23 4, 32 3, 36, 38, 47 9, 54, 55, 58 9, 64 5, 67, 68, 70, 72, 80, 83, 148 9, 166, 204, 383, 407 formation, 64 5, 68, 72 Clubroot disease, 310

CO2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 22, 27, 79, 200, 234, 237, 319, 331, 350, 357 8, 359, 367 8, 370, 371, 372, 374, 376, 377 8, 379, 381, 382, 383, 384, 385 7, 415, 430 1 levels, 9, 18, 331, 430 1 Coastal zone development, 291, 292 Coastline degradation, 409 21 Coasts at latitudinal extremes, 418 20 Cold water corals, 375, 380 Community composition, 292, 297, 301 302, 303

Competent pathogen, 426

Conducive environment, 426

Continuous plankton recorder (CPR), 238 9,246

Convection diffusion and Drift mechanisms, 60

Coral:

density, 259 diversity, 259 ecosystems, 275, 279 80 reef ecosystems, 253 60, 381 species, 255, 256, 267, 269 Coriolis force, 147 9, 172 3, 352 3 Cosmic Rays (CR), 45 65

cutoff rigidity variation, 60 3 effects, 43 73 intensity, 44, 45, 51 4 Crassulacean acid metabolisms (CAM) pathways, 308

Crop production, 307 21 Crossing Galactic arms, 71 Cumulative impacts, 272 4, 276

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