Plant Ecology as an Indicator of Climate and Global Change

NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford 0X10 8 BB, UK Centre for Conservation Ecology and Environmental Change, Bournemouth University, Fern Barrow, Poole BH12 5BB, UK 1. Introduction 5. Plant Growth 2. Changes in Phenology 6. Conclusions 3. Changes in Distribution References The distribution of types of vegetation around the world is clearly related to climate. Different combinations of temperature, rainfall and seasonality produce the global variety of biomes,...

Top TOA and Bottom BOA of the Atmosphere Solar Radiation and Atmospheric Transmission

Several of the quantities encountered when studying the earth's short wave radiation balance are easily computed. Understanding these relationships can give the quantitatively minded reader more confidence about solar radiation and its trends. Black-body radiation is described by the Stefan Boltzman equation, that is, where B is radiant flux density emitted from a black body of temperature T, and s is the Stefan Bolzmann constant, 5.67 x 10-8 Wm 2K 4. Taking the sun's average surface...

Climate Change and Temporal and Spatial Mismatches in Insect Communities

Prior, Derrick J. Parker, Jason D.K. Dzurisin, Richard L. Lindroth* and Jessica J. Hellmann Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 *Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 1. Introduction 4. Predator Mediated Effects on 2. Direct Effects of Climate Change Insect Populations on Insects 4.1. Temporal Mismatches 2.1. Temporal Changes Between Insects and Their 2.2. Spatial Changes Predators...

The Physical Chemistry Properties Of Greenhouse Gases

The fundamental physical property of a greenhouse gas is that it must absorb infra-red radiation via one or more of its vibrational modes in the infra-red range of 5 25 mm. Furthermore, since the primary greenhouse gases of CO2, O3 and H2O absorb in the range 12 17 mm (or 590 830 cm 1), 9.6 mm (1040 cm 1) and l < 8 mm (> 1250 cm 1), an effective secondary greenhouse gas is one which absorbs infra-red radiation strongly outside these ranges of wavelengths (or wavenumbers). A molecular...

Measurement of Surface Radiation

Total short wave 'solar' radiant flux density on a horizontal surface on the earth's surface (BOA), that is, global radiation, Eg , is measured with a pyran-ometer. First class pyranometers measure the temperature difference between an exposed optically black surface and either a white surface (in the older instruments) or the lower non-exposed surface using a thermopile. In order to exclude thermal radiation and advection of heat from the surroundings the black surface is covered with two...

The Impact of Climate and Global Change on Crop Production

Centre for Horticulture and Landscape, School of Biological Sciences, Whiteknights, The University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AS, United Kingdom 1. Introduction 5. Winners and Losers 2. Impact on Plant Growth and 6. Adaptation Reproduction References Changing climate adds a very significant dimension to the complex problem of ensuring that agriculture worldwide can feed the burgeoning human population. Ensuring food security must reduce environmental damage, not add to it. Population...

Introduction 11 Carbonate Chemistry

Oceans have the capacity to absorb large amounts of Carbon dioxide (CO2) because CO2 dissolves and reacts in seawater to form bicarbonate (HCO3) and protons (H+). About a quarter to a third of the CO2 emitted into the Climate Change Observed Impacts on Planet Earth Copyright 2009 by Elsevier B.V. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels, cement manufacturing and land use changes has been absorbed by the oceans 1 . Over thousands of years, the...

Geological History of Climate Change

Department of Geology, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK Earth's climate is now changing in response to an array of anthropogenic perturbations, notably the release of greenhouse gases an understanding of the rate, mode and scale of this change is now of literally vital importance to society. There is presently intense study of current and historical (i.e. measured) changes in both perceived climate drivers and the Earth system response. Such studies typically lead...

Origin Of The Greenhouse Effect Primary And Secondary Effects

The earth is a planet in dynamic equilibrium, in that it continually absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation. It receives ultra-violet and visible radiation from the sun, it emits infra-red radiation and energy balance says that 'energy in' must equal 'energy out' for the temperature of the planet to be constant. This equality can be used to determine what the average temperature of the planet should be. Both the sun and the earth are black-body emitters of electromagnetic radiation. That...

How Ice Sheets Work

To understand the influence that ice sheets have on the Earth system, it is important to have some insight into how an ice sheet, indeed any glacier, operates as a natural self-regulating entity. Even during the warmest months, the inland parts of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets are too cold for significant melting of the snow surface to occur, and so, year-by-year, snow accumulates. If unchecked, this accumulation of snow would cause endless thickening, and in the absurd limit, this...

The Role of Variations of the Earths Orbital Characteristics in Climate Change

Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Budapestlaan 4, 3584 CD Utrecht, The Netherlands Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht (IMAU), P.O. Box 80 000, 3508 TA Utrecht, The Netherlands 1. Introduction 3.2. Low and Mid Latitude 2. Astronomical Parameters Climate Changes 2.1. Eccentricity 3.3. Greenhouse World 2.2. Precession and Obliquity 4. Conclusion 3. Orbital Induced Climate Change 3.1. Ice Ages The climate of the Earth is characterised by...

The Lifetime Of A Greenhouse Gas In The Earths Atmosphere

The microscopic radiative efficiency of a greenhouse gas is determined by measuring absolute absorption coefficients for infra-red-active vibrations in the range ca. 400 2000 cm 1 and integrating over this region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Its meaning is unambiguous. The lifetime, however, is a term that can mean different things to different scientists, according to their discipline. It is, therefore, pertinent to describe exactly what is meant by the lifetime of a greenhouse gas...

Sea Life Pelagic and Planktonic Ecosystems as an Indicator of Climate and Global Change

Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, Citadel Hill, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 2PB, United Kingdom Marine Institute, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, United Kingdom 1.1. Sensitivity of Pelagic and Planktonic Ecosystems to Climate and Global Change 1.2. Marine and Terrestrial Biological Responses to Climate and Global Change 1.3. Ocean Acidification and other Anthropogenic Influences on Pelagic and Planktonic Ecosystems 2. Observed Impacts on Pelagic and Planktonic...

Preface

Despite the many signs of global warming, global dimming, and changes to the climate, there are still many people who will not accept that something very ominous is taking place. This book is a very positive contribution to the problem. Professor Letcher is to be congratulated for inspiring so many world class experts into compiling such a wide reaching volume aimed at assessing and accounting for our changing climate. The book on climate change answers the basic questions what can possibly...

Intertidal Indicators of Climate and Global Change

Marine Biological Association of the UK, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, United Kingdom 2. Climate Change and Biogeography 2.1. Using Long Term Datasets to Detect Climate Change 2.2. Responses of Intertidal Biota 3.2. Reproduction and Recruitment 4. Additional impacts of Global Change 4.3. Climate Change and Non Native Species 5. Conclusions Acknowledgements References The rocky intertidal zone spans the region of the coastline from the highest vertical level reached at high...

N

Administration (NOAA), 30, 83, 99, 167, 173, 355 Natural and Anthropogenic forcing, 345 Non native species, 291 2, 381 Normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI), 299 300 North Atlantic deep water (NADW), 138, 355, 356 7, 358, 361 North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), 88, 90, 99, 138, 166, 167 9, 170, 178, 186 7, 191, 201, 238, 241, 244, 245, 253 4, 268, 351 North Atlantic zooplankton, 267 Northern annular mode (NAM), 166 North sea, 185 6, 238, 240, 241, 243 4, 246, 267 8, 291, 374 Northward...