Earth Climate

Circulation Driving Mechanisms

A striking feature of the temperature distribution in the oceans Fig. 1 displays a section of temperature along the meridional extent of the Atlantic is the strong vertical contrast in temperatures at low and mid-latitudes, with warm upper-ocean waters floating on top of cold deep and abyssal waters. The vertical layering of waters of different temperatures (densities) is referred to as stratification. It was already recognised as early as 1798 by Count Rumford that in the absence of any...

Plant Ecology as an Indicator of Climate and Global Change

The Myocardial Kwashiorkor

NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford 0X10 8 BB, UK Centre for Conservation Ecology and Environmental Change, Bournemouth University, Fern Barrow, Poole BH12 5BB, UK 1. Introduction 5. Plant Growth 2. Changes in Phenology 6. Conclusions 3. Changes in Distribution References The distribution of types of vegetation around the world is clearly related to climate. Different combinations of temperature, rainfall and seasonality produce the global variety of biomes,...

The Role of Variations of the Earths Orbital Characteristics in Climate Change

Orbit The Earth Temperature

Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Budapestlaan 4, 3584 CD Utrecht, The Netherlands Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht (IMAU), P.O. Box 80 000, 3508 TA Utrecht, The Netherlands 1. Introduction 3.2. Low and Mid Latitude 2. Astronomical Parameters Climate Changes 2.1. Eccentricity 3.3. Greenhouse World 2.2. Precession and Obliquity 4. Conclusion 3. Orbital Induced Climate Change 3.1. Ice Ages The climate of the Earth is characterised by...

The Role of Volcanic Activity in Climate and Global Change

Where 30n And 30s Earth

Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901 855 2. Aerosol Loading, Spatial Distribution and Radiative Effect 3.1. Tropospheric Cooling and Stratospheric Warming 3.2. Effect on Hydrological Cycle 3.3. Volcanic Effect on Atmospheric Circulation 3.4. Volcanic Impact on Ocean Heat Content and Sea Level 3.5. Strengthening of Overturning Circulation 3.6. Volcanic Impact on Sea Ice 4. Summary Volcanic activity is an important natural cause of climate...

The Physical Chemistry Properties Of Greenhouse Gases

The fundamental physical property of a greenhouse gas is that it must absorb infra-red radiation via one or more of its vibrational modes in the infra-red range of 5 25 mm. Furthermore, since the primary greenhouse gases of CO2, O3 and H2O absorb in the range 12 17 mm (or 590 830 cm 1), 9.6 mm (1040 cm 1) and l < 8 mm (> 1250 cm 1), an effective secondary greenhouse gas is one which absorbs infra-red radiation strongly outside these ranges of wavelengths (or wavenumbers). A molecular...

Archives of Surface Solar Radiation Measurements

Solar radiation data measured by the different national weather services and conforming to WMO standards are collected in various national archives and are available from national weather services. Much of this data has also been collected in two archives the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) in Zurich, Switzerland 24 , and the World Radiation Data Center (WRDC) archive in St. Petersberg, Russia, which was established by the WMO in 1964. GEBA has incorporated much of the data from the WRDC...

The Impact of Climate and Global Change on Crop Production

Centre for Horticulture and Landscape, School of Biological Sciences, Whiteknights, The University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AS, United Kingdom 1. Introduction 5. Winners and Losers 2. Impact on Plant Growth and 6. Adaptation Reproduction References Changing climate adds a very significant dimension to the complex problem of ensuring that agriculture worldwide can feed the burgeoning human population. Ensuring food security must reduce environmental damage, not add to it. Population...

Weather Pattern Changes in the Tropics and Mid Latitudes as an Indicator of Global Changes

The Dying Earth Series Balance

Centro de Geof sica da Universidade de Lisboa, IDL, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Campo Grande, Ed C8, Piso 3, 1749 016 Lisbon, Portugal Departamento de F sica Aplicada, Faculty of Sciences, University of Vigo, 32004 Ourense, Spain 1. Introduction 3. Changes in Tropical Patterns 2. Observed Changes in 3.1. El Ni o Southern Oscillation Extra Tropical Patterns (ENSO) 2.1. North Atlantic Oscillation 3.2. Tropical Cyclones (NAO) 3.3. Monsoons 2.2. Pacific North America 4. Conclusion...

Intertidal Indicators of Climate and Global Change

Marine Biological Association of the UK, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, United Kingdom 2. Climate Change and Biogeography 2.1. Using Long Term Datasets to Detect Climate Change 2.2. Responses of Intertidal Biota 3.2. Reproduction and Recruitment 4. Additional impacts of Global Change 4.3. Climate Change and Non Native Species 5. Conclusions Acknowledgements References The rocky intertidal zone spans the region of the coastline from the highest vertical level reached at high...

Top TOA and Bottom BOA of the Atmosphere Solar Radiation and Atmospheric Transmission

Several of the quantities encountered when studying the earth's short wave radiation balance are easily computed. Understanding these relationships can give the quantitatively minded reader more confidence about solar radiation and its trends. Black-body radiation is described by the Stefan Boltzman equation, that is, where B is radiant flux density emitted from a black body of temperature T, and s is the Stefan Bolzmann constant, 5.67 x 10-8 Wm 2K 4. Taking the sun's average surface...

BOA Radiation

From this brief discussion of TOA solar radiation balance we jump to the situation at the surface below the atmosphere where the solar radiation balance is confounded by atmospheric transmissivity and surface albedo. The former depends mostly on cloudiness and cloud properties, but also on dust and other aerosols. The latter, which has a small influence on downward radiation, depends on surface properties, which are influenced by land use and climate. As solar radiation traverses the atmosphere...

Climate Change And Globalrelative Sealevel Rise

Human Induced Land Subsidence

The impacts and responses of coasts to sea-level rise are a product of relative (or local) sea-level rise rather than global changes alone. Relative sea-level rise takes into account global-mean sea-level rise, regional trends in the absolute elevation of the ocean surface, and geological uplift or subsidence and related processes which change the position of the land sea boundary. Relative sea-level rise is only partly a response to climate change and can vary significantly among coastal...

Evidence That Simulated Climate Change Affects Plant Disease In Experiments

Next we consider two types of evidence for effects of changes in climate on plant disease. The first is evidence that simulated climate change affects plant disease in experimental settings. The effect of simulated climate change has been studied in experiments with altered heat treatments, altered precipitation treatments and carbon enrichment treatments. Where there are apparent effects from these treatments, this implies that, to the extent that the simulations do effectively represent...

The Role of Atmospheric Gases in Global Warming

School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom If the general public in the developed world is confused about what the greenhouse effect is, what the important greenhouse gases are, and whether greenhouse gases really are the predominant cause of the recent rise in temperature of the earth's atmosphere, it is hardly surprising. Nowadays, statements by one scientist are often immediately refuted by another, and both tend to state their claims with...

Sea Life Pelagic and Planktonic Ecosystems as an Indicator of Climate and Global Change

Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, Citadel Hill, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 2PB, United Kingdom Marine Institute, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, United Kingdom 1.1. Sensitivity of Pelagic and Planktonic Ecosystems to Climate and Global Change 1.2. Marine and Terrestrial Biological Responses to Climate and Global Change 1.3. Ocean Acidification and other Anthropogenic Influences on Pelagic and Planktonic Ecosystems 2. Observed Impacts on Pelagic and Planktonic...

Can We Detect Changes In The Amoc Is The Amoc Changing Already

Previously, direct estimates of the vigour of the AMOC have been obtained from transatlantic hydrographic (density profile) sections, assuming the geo-strophic balance to hold on the ocean interior. Five such sections have been carried out along 24.5 N in the Atlantic over the last 50 years 50 . Taken together the five snapshots, each of which is assumed to be representative of the annual mean strength of the AMOC of the year in which they where taken (i.e. intra-seasonal variations assumed to...

The Role of Space Weather and Cosmic Ray Effects in Climate Change

Head of Cosmic Ray and Space Weather Center with Emilio Segre Observatory, affiliated to Tel Aviv University, TECHNION and Israel Space Agency, P.O. Box 2217, Qazrin 12900, Israel Chief Scientist of Cosmic Ray Department of IZMIRAN Russian Academy of Science, Troitsk 142090, Moscow Region, Russia 2. Solar Activity, Cosmic Rays and Climate Change 2.1. Long Term Cosmic Ray Intensity Variations and Climate Change 2.2. The Possible Role of Solar Activity and Solar Irradiance in Climate Change 2.3....

Geological History of Climate Change

Morning Work Kindergarten Free

Department of Geology, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK Earth's climate is now changing in response to an array of anthropogenic perturbations, notably the release of greenhouse gases an understanding of the rate, mode and scale of this change is now of literally vital importance to society. There is presently intense study of current and historical (i.e. measured) changes in both perceived climate drivers and the Earth system response. Such studies typically lead...

Changes in Marine Biodiversity as an Indicator of Climate Change

Biology Department, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4J1 1. Introduction 4. Cumulative Impacts and Indirect 2. Climate Change and the Oceans Effects of Climate Change 3. Effects of Climate Change on 5. Biodiversity as Insurance against Biodiversity Climate Change Impacts 3.1. Local Scale 6. Conclusions 3.2. Regional Scale Acknowledgements 3.3. Global Scale References 3.4. Other Factors Relating to Climate Change Our planet has a number of features that make it unique,...

Rising Sea Levels as an Indicator of Global Change

School of Geography, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA, United Kingdom 1. Introduction 5. Conclusion 2. Is Sea Level Rising Acknowledgement 3. Why Is Sea Level Rising References 4. Are Contemporary Rates of Sea Level Rise Unusual The release of the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007 was followed by much debate, both in the media and in the scientific community, on the sea-level rise predictions it contained 1 . This was partly because...

Changes in the Atmospheric Circulation as Indicator of Climate Change

Where 30n And 30s Earth

Department of Meteorology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 2. The General Circulation of the Atmosphere 3. The Poleward Expansion of the Tropical Circulation 3.1. Observation Based Evidence 4. The Decreasing Intensity of the Tropical Circulation 5. Emerging Mechanisms 5.1. Tropical Tropopause 6. Connection to Extratropical Circulation Change 7. Outstanding Problems and Conclusions The strength, direction, and steadiness of the prevailing winds are crucial for climate. Winds associated...

The Lifetime Of A Greenhouse Gas In The Earths Atmosphere

The microscopic radiative efficiency of a greenhouse gas is determined by measuring absolute absorption coefficients for infra-red-active vibrations in the range ca. 400 2000 cm 1 and integrating over this region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Its meaning is unambiguous. The lifetime, however, is a term that can mean different things to different scientists, according to their discipline. It is, therefore, pertinent to describe exactly what is meant by the lifetime of a greenhouse gas...

How Ice Sheets Work

To understand the influence that ice sheets have on the Earth system, it is important to have some insight into how an ice sheet, indeed any glacier, operates as a natural self-regulating entity. Even during the warmest months, the inland parts of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets are too cold for significant melting of the snow surface to occur, and so, year-by-year, snow accumulates. If unchecked, this accumulation of snow would cause endless thickening, and in the absurd limit, this...

Daily Temperature Range DTR

Eg is directly related to maximum mid-day temperatures since it heats the surface. The same factors that reduce Eg , that is, clouds, haze and aerosols, increase downwelling long-wave radiation at night leading to higher nighttime, or minimum daily temperatures. Therefore, it is no surprise that Eg is significantly correlated with daily temperature range (DTR, 82 ). Various episodes of temperature changes that correspond to sudden changes in atmospheric aerosol loading have been reported. One...

Global Dimming Reports in the Twentieth Century

Suraqui et al. 29 reported 'severe changes over the years in solar radiation' and issued a call for 'a careful study of incoming radiation at different places throughout the world to determine the exact kind, order of magnitude and their causes '. The 'severe changes' referred to emerged from the measurements at the site of the Smithsonian Institution's former solar radiation monitoring station on Mt. St. Katherine in the southern Sinai peninsula (28 31'N, 33 56'E, 2643 m altitude)....

The Variable Ocean

Bodies of water circulate throughout the oceans both horizontally and vertically as a consequence of physical forces exerted on them according to Newton's Law. The oceanic circulation is not steady in time. Rather motions of water bodies in the ocean are known to vary on a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. The following four examples serve to highlight natural variations of large-scale circulation patterns (i) Seasonal variations of the strength of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre...

Recent Impacts Of Sealevel Rise And Climate Change

Sea level was relatively stable in the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries it started to rise in the nineteenth century and rose about 20 cm by the end of the twentieth century, with a global rise of 17 5 cm rise in that century 9,41 . Although this change may seem small, it has had many significant effects, most particularly in terms of the return periods of extreme water levels 35,42 . Worldwide there are many coasts that have been observed to be eroding 43 . However, attributing particular...

Sea Temperature Change as an Indicator of Global Change

Marine Biology and Ecology Research Centre, Marine Institute, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, United Kingdom 1. Introduction Role of Ocean, 3. Global and Regional Patterns of Mechanisms and Correction Sea Temperature over the Last of Bias 100 150 Years 2. Long term Trends in Sea 4. Conclusion Anthropogenic Temperature The Historical Influence 1. INTRODUCTION ROLE OF OCEAN, MECHANISMS AND CORRECTION OF BIAS The oceans play the pivotal role in Earth's climate variability...

Climate Change and Temporal and Spatial Mismatches in Insect Communities

Prior, Derrick J. Parker, Jason D.K. Dzurisin, Richard L. Lindroth* and Jessica J. Hellmann Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 *Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 1. Introduction 4. Predator Mediated Effects on 2. Direct Effects of Climate Change Insect Populations on Insects 4.1. Temporal Mismatches 2.1. Temporal Changes Between Insects and Their 2.2. Spatial Changes Predators...

Measurement of Surface Radiation

Total short wave 'solar' radiant flux density on a horizontal surface on the earth's surface (BOA), that is, global radiation, Eg , is measured with a pyran-ometer. First class pyranometers measure the temperature difference between an exposed optically black surface and either a white surface (in the older instruments) or the lower non-exposed surface using a thermopile. In order to exclude thermal radiation and advection of heat from the surroundings the black surface is covered with two...

References

Lindeboom, J.I. Marshall Crossland, M.D.A. Le Tissier, Coastal fluxes in the anthropocene.The Land Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone Project of the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme Series Global Change The IGBP Series, 2005. 2. I. Valiela, Global Coastal Change. Blackwell, Malden, MA, USA, 2006. 3. R.J. Nicholls, P.P. Wong, V.R. Burkett, J.O. Codignotto, J.E. Hay, R.F. McLean, S. Ragoo naden, C.D. Woodroffe, in M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P....

Global Warming And Coasts At Latitudinal Extremes

Global warming poses a particular threat to coasts at the latitudinal extremes, polar coasts and coral reefs. Polar coasts are experiencing permafrost melt and a decrease in the extent of sea ice as result of warming which is leading to a significant acceleration in erosion rates. Rapid shoreline erosion has been occurring on parts of the Arctic coast over recent decades, attributed in part to reduced sea ice cover allowing more wave activity to reach the shoreline 55 . Reduction in thickness...

Changes in Coral Reef Ecosystems as an Indicator of Climate and Global Change

Marine Biology and Ecology Research Centre, Marine Institute, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, United Kingdom 1. Introduction 4. Conclusion 2. Tropical Coral Reef Ecosystems References 3. The Associated Fauna of Coral Reefs In comparison with terrestrial systems and other components of the marine environment, relatively little is known about how climate and global change has been affecting the organisms of the seabed with one exception tropical coral reefs. Recent reviews...

The Evaporation Conundrum

Potential evaporation rates in many places in the world decreased during the second half of the twentieth century. As with solar radiation measurements, a major client for these measurements is the agricultural community, where evaporation rates are used to determine irrigation scheduling and application rates. Measurement of evaporation is usually done with an evaporimeter of the evaporation pan type, for example, the US class-A pan and Russian GGI-3000 pan 60 . Specifications of pan size,...

The Causes Of Dimming And Brightening

Dimming and brightening are related to aerosol loading of the atmosphere and the influences of aerosols on atmospheric transmittance. The influence of natural aerosols from volcanic eruptions can be seen in the sharp declines in Eg for the year or two following the eruptions of El Chichon in 1983 and Pina-tubo in 1991 54 . Stanhill and Cohen 23 reviewed the possible causes for dimming in the context of a simplified expression Eg Eo exp - (tr + tg + tw + ta + tc) (5) where Eg is estimated from...

The Hydrological Cycle

Regional evaporation rates are a central part of the hydrological cycle, and so the question as to whether decreases in pan evaporation indicate decreasing or increasing regional evaporation is of great importance. An increasing hydro-logical cycle with increased regional evaporation would lead to increased rainfall rates. However, it would also increase cloudiness whose feedback influence would cause a decrease in Eg . As noted above, cloud changes have been relatively small. Prior to the...

The Amocs Role In Heat Transport Oceanic Uptake Of Carbon And Ventilation Of The Deep Ocean

The Earth's surface takes up heat by absorbing solar short-wave radiation. On a global average this is almost exactly balanced by the Earth's emission of long-wave radiation. Regional budgets of radiative energy fluxes, however, are unbalanced, as they show pronounced heat gain at low latitudes opposing to heat loss at high latitudes 27 . One-quarter of the 5 Pw7 of maximum global heat transport that the coupled ocean atmosphere system is required to transport poleward in the Northern...

Climatic Variables And Plant Disease

Nhd Exhibit Examples

Understanding the factors that trigger the development of plant disease epidemics is essential if we are to create and implement effective strategies for disease management 11 . This has motivated a large body of research addressing the effects of climate on plant disease 11,12 . Plant disease occurrence is generally driven by three factors a susceptible host, the presence of a competent pathogen (and vector if needed) and conducive environment 9,10 . All three of these factors must be in...

Climate Change Sealevel Rise And Resulting Impacts

Relative sea-level rise has a wide range of effects on the natural system the main effects are summarised in Table 1. Flooding submergence, ecosystem change and erosion have received significantly more attention than salinisa-tion and rising water tables. Rising sea level alters all coastal processes. The immediate effect is submergence and increased flooding of coastal land, as well as saltwater intrusion into surface waters. Longer term effects also occur as the coast adjusts to the new...

Experimental Observations

Kaizen Standard Spiele

Experimental approaches have, so far, been carried out in controlled laboratory experiments on single organisms or in larger volume sediment or seawa-ter mesocosms enriched with CO2 containing mixed populations. There are many important biological processes within the lifecycle of an organism or even more so in an ecosystem. Therefore an impact on a process, be it at the cellular level or ecosystem level, may have a negative impact on the ultimate successful functioning of the ecosystem. An...

Origin Of The Greenhouse Effect Primary And Secondary Effects

Origin Greenhouse Effect

The earth is a planet in dynamic equilibrium, in that it continually absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation. It receives ultra-violet and visible radiation from the sun, it emits infra-red radiation and energy balance says that 'energy in' must equal 'energy out' for the temperature of the planet to be constant. This equality can be used to determine what the average temperature of the planet should be. Both the sun and the earth are black-body emitters of electromagnetic radiation. That...

Bird Ecology as an Indicator of Climate and Global Change

Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Department Vogelwarte Radolfzell, Germany 1. Introduction 2.3. Reproduction 2. Indicators of Change 3. Conclusion Birds are highly mobile and easy to observe. They are relatively easy to recognise and their occurrence and habits are noted by millions of passionate birdwatchers or just interested laymen. It is not surprising that changes in abundance or behaviour of birds are among the best documented changes known in the animal world. Changes in the arrival...

Acknowledgements

National Science Foundation (NSF) through Grant DEB-0516046 and NSF Grant EF-0525712 as part of the joint NSF-National Institutes of Health (NIH) Ecology of Infectious Disease program, by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to the Office of International Research, Education, and Development (OIRED) at Virginia Tech for the Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management (SANREM) Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) under Award...

Contributors

Numbers in parentheses indicate the pages on which the authors' contributions begin. Richard P. Tuckett (3), School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom Shabtai Cohen (21), Department of Environmental Physics and Irrigation. Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Centre, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel Lev I. Dorman (43), Head of Cosmic Ray and Space Weather Center with Emilio...

Increasing Human Utilisation Of The Coastal Zone

Human use of the coast increased dramatically during the twentieth century. It has been estimated that 37 of the world's population lives within 100 km, and 49 lives within 200 km, of the coast 24 the greatest number of people live at low elevations and population densities in coastal regions are about 3 times higher than the global average 4 . Almost two-thirds of urban settlements with populations greater than five million occur at low elevations in the coastal zone (less than 10 m above mean...

Changes to the Ocean Carbon Cycle

Over several thousands of years, around 90 of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions will end up in the ocean 4 . Because of the slow mixing time of the ocean the current oceanic uptake fraction is only about one-third of this value 1 , without which atmospheric CO2 would be about 55 ppm higher today than what is currently observed (385 ppm). The Southern Ocean is estimated to account for around 25 of the anthropogenic CO2 taken up by all the oceans while the North Atlantic is estimated to account for...

Sealevel Rise And Coastal Systems

Since the peak of the last glacial maximum about 20 000 a (years) ago, sea level has risen 125 m 11 . Geologic evidence indicates inundation of coastal lowlands and retreat of shorelines during periods of rapid sea-level rise, such as major meltwater pulses (Fig. 2). This pattern of sea-level rise was experienced around the world, driven by the melt of the large ice sheets FIGURE 2 Sea level history since the peak of the last glacial maximum with arrows indicating the timing of meltwater...

Evidence from Oceanographic Cruises

Sabine and colleagues 1 used inorganic carbon measurements from an international survey effort in the 1990s, consisting of 9618 hydrographic stations collected on 95 cruises in different oceans (pH data is mapped in Fig. 1b). They estimated a global oceanic anthropogenic CO2 sink for the period from 1800 to 1994 of 118 19 Pg of carbon, accounting for about 48 of the total fossil-fuel and cement-manufacturing emissions. A hydrographic survey along the western coast of North America, from central...

Evidence from Long Term Oceanographic Time Series

The Pacific time-series station, off Hawaii (Hawaii Ocean Time-Series, HOTS), shows an increase in seawater CO2 concurrent with the increase in atmospheric CO2 recorded at Mauna Loa. The resultant decrease in surface ocean pH is 0.0019 0.00025 a 1 (Fig. 3a) 17 . Aragonite and calcite saturation states also both show a decline over the last 20 a (Fig. 3b and c). The other two major time series stations, the Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series (BATS) and the European Station for Time-Series in the Ocean...

Mammal Ecology as an Indicator of Climate Change

Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Ste Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada H9X 3V9 1. Introduction A Primer on 2.2. Spatial Approaches Mammal Thermoregulation and 3. Linking Time and Space in Climate Impacts Mammal Climate Responses 2. Demonstrated Impacts of Acknowledgements Climate Change on Mammals References On 12 January 2002, weather stations in New South Wales, Australia recorded air temperatures exceeding 42 C, which is more than 16 C hotter than the 30-year...

General Comments On Longlived Greenhouse Gases

In 1994, Ravishankara and Lovejoy wrote that the release of any long-lived species into the atmosphere should be viewed with great concern 15 . They noted that the CFCs, with relatively 'short' lifetimes of ca. 100 a, have had a disastrous effect over a relatively short period of time, ca. 30 50 a, on the ozone layer in the stratosphere that protects humans from harmful UV radiation. However, following implementation of international treaties (e.g., Montreal, 1987 16 ) it is now expected that...

Introduction

The phrases CLIMATE CHANGE and GLOBAL WARMING and more recently GLOBAL COOLING are now part of our lives and rarely does a day go by without a mention in the press or on the radio of the possible causes of climate change and its consequences. Climate change has come upon us in a relatively short space of time and is accelerating with alarming speed. It is perhaps the most serious problem that the civilized world has had to face. It is the subject of major international co-operation through the...

Climate Change Observed Impacts on Planet Earth

Emeritus Professor University of KwaZulu-Natal Durban, South Africa Amsterdam Boston Heidelberg London New York Oxford Paris * San Diego * San Francisco Singapore * Sydney Tokyo Radarweg 29, PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying,...