Contents

Preface 9

Chapter 1. Introduction. Composition and structure of the Earth's atmosphere 11

1.1 Composition of the air 11

1.2 Structure of the atmosphere 14

Chapter 2. Formation and evolution of the Earth's atmosphere. Chemistry of main constituents .. 17

2.1 Statement of the problem 17

2.2 Dissipation of cosmic gases from the Earths atmosphere 18

2.3 "Secondary" constituents 21

2.4 Relation between atmospheric nitrogen and the biosphere 22

2.5 Increase of the oxygen level during geological times 23

2.6 Variations of C02 level 26

Chapter 3. Atmospheric cycle of trace constituents 29

3.1 Introduction 29

3.2 Hydrogen and helium 31

3.2.1 Hydrogen 31

3.2.2 Helium 35

3.3 Carbon compounds 35

3.3.1 Methane 35

3.3.2 Carbon monoxide 39

3.3.3 Non-methane organic carbon 42

3.3.4 The atmospheric carbon cycle 45

3.4.1 Introduction 46

3.4.2 Concepts of photochemistry and reaction kinetics 47

3.4.3 Formation and destruction of 0} 48

3.4.4 The distribution of total ozone. Vertical profile of the ozone concentration 55

3.4.5. Tropospheric ozone 58

3.5 Nitrogen compounds 62

3.5.1 Introduction 62

3.5.2 Nitrous oxide 63

3.5.3 Ammonia 65

3.5.4 Nitrogen oxides 69

3.6 Sulfur compounds 72

3.6.1 Introduction 72

3.6.2 Origin of atmospheric sulfur 72

3.6.3 Transformation of sulfur compounds in the atmosphere 75

3.6.4 Concentration of sulfur compounds 81

3.6.5 Atmospheric cycle of sulfur 85

3.6.6 Atmospheric sulfur cycle over continents 87

3.7 Summary 89

Chapter 4. The atmospheric aerosol 91

4.1 Introduction 91

4.1.1 Definition of the aerosol 91

4.1.2 Classification and measurement of atmospheric aerosol particles 93

4.1.3 Importance of the study of atmospheric aerosol 96

4.2 Origin of atmospheric aerosol particles 98

4.2.1 Dispersal of particles of surface origin 98

4.2.2 Formation of atmospheric aerosol particles by chemical reaction and condensation.. 99

4.2.3 Other formation mechanisms 101

4.2.4 Comparison of the strength of different aerosol sources 102

4.3 Concentration and size distribution of atmospheric aerosol particles 103

4.3.1 Concentration and vertical distribution of Aitken particles 103

4.3.2 The size distribution 106

4.3.3 Concentration and vertical profile of large and giant particles 113

4.4 Chemical composition of atmospheric aerosol particles 113

4.4.1 The main methods of the identification 113

4.4.2 Chemical composition of tropospheric aerosols 115

4.4.3 Stratospheric particles 125

4.5 Variation of the size of aerosol particles as a function of the relative humidity 128

4.5.1 Theoretical considerations 128

4.5.2 Results of measurements 130

Chapter 5. Removal of trace substances from the atmosphere 133

5.1 Introduction 133

5.2 Dry deposition 133

5.2.1 Dry deposition of aerosol particles 133

5.2.2 Dry deposition of trace gases 136

5.3 Wet deposition 137

5.3.1 Rain-out of aerosol particles in clouds 137

5.3.2 Rain-out of trace gases 140

5.3.3 Wash-out of trace constituents below the cloud base 143

5.3.4 The study of wet removal mechanisms by means of atmospheric measurements 146

5.4 Chemical composition of precipitation 151

5.4.1 Introduction 151

5.4.2 American measurements 152

5.4.3 The "Swedish" network 154

5.4.4 Chemical composition of precipitation waters over the Soviet Union 157

5.4.5 Annual variations of the chemical composition 158

5.4.6 The future of precipitation chemistry measurements 160

Chapter 6. Connection of variations of the climate with the chemical composition of the atmosphere 161

6.1 Introduction 161

6.2 Radiation balance of the Earth-atmosphere system 164

6.3 The theory of climate and climate modeling 166

6.4 Present climatic variations 168

6.5 Possible explanation for present climatic variations. Connection of climatic variations with the air pollution 170

6.5.1 Variations in the chemical composition of stratosphere 170

6.5.2 Effects of tropospheric aerosol particles in the radiation balance 174

6.5.3 Effects of carbon dioxide on the radiation balance 179

6.5.4 Summary 182

References 183

Subject index 195

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