Saprophytic: Bacteria that breakdown bodies of dead plants and animals (nonliving organic material), returning organic materials to the food chain. Saprophytic bacteria are usually non-pathogenic, too. Most Aiken Clear-Flo® products are saprophytic.

SAR: Sodium Adsorption Ratio - this ratio expresses the relative activity of sodium ions in the exchange reactions with the soil.

SCFM: Cubic feet of air per minute at standard conditions of temperature, pressure and humidity (0 , 14.7 psi and 50% relative humidity). Secondary Treatment: A wastewater treatment process used to convert dissolved or suspended materials into a form more readily separated from the water being treated. Usually the process follows primary treatment by sedimentation. The process commonly is a type of biological treatment process followed by secondary clarifiers that allow the solids to settle out from the water being treated. Sedimentation: The process of subsidence and deposition of suspended matter from a wastewater by gravity.

Seeding: Introduction of microorganisms (such as ALKEN CLEAR-FLO® 1000 series for aquaculture, 4000 series for grease, and 7000 series for industrial and municipal wastewater) into a biological oxidation unit to minimize the time required to build a biological sludge. Also referred to as inoculation with cultured organisms.

Seine net: A net designed to collect aquatic organisms inhabiting natural waters from the shoreline to 3' depths is called a seine net. Most often a plankton seine. Selvage: A loom finished edge that prevents cloth unravelling. Septic: A condition produced by anaerobic bacteria. If severe, the wastewater turns black, gives off foul odors, contains little or no dissolved oxygen and creates a high oxygen demand.

Septicity: Septicity is the condition in which organic matter decomposes to form foul-smelling products associated with the absence of free oxygen. If severe, the wastewater turns black, gives off foul-odors, contains little or no dissolved oxygen and creates a heavy oxygen demand.

Septic Tank: Untreated liquid household wastes (sewage) will quickly clog your absorption field if not properly treated. The septic tank is a holding tank in which this treatment can take place. When sewage enters the septic tank, the heavy solids settle to the bottom of the tank; the lighter solids, fats and greases partially decompose and: rise to the surface and form a layer of scum. The solids that have settled to the bottom are attacked by bacteria and form sludge. Settleable solids: Those solids in suspension which will pass through a 2000 micron sieve aijid settle in one hour under the influence of gravity. Sewage: The used water and water-carried solids from homes that flow in sewers to a wastewater treatment plant. The preferred term is wastewater.

Shock load: The arrival at a plant of a waste which is toxic to organisms in sufficient quantity or strength to cause operating problems. Possible problems include odors and sloughing off of the growth or slime on a trickling-filter media.

Organic or hydraulic overloads also can cause a shock load.

Sieve: A screen with apertures of uniform size used for sizing granular materials.

Sloughings: Trickling-filter slimes that have been washed off the filter media. They are generally quite high in BOD and will lower effluent quality unless removed.

Sludge: The settleable solids separated from liquids during processing; the deposits of foreign materials on the bottoms of streams or other bodies of water.

Sludge age: A measure of the length of time a particle of suspended solids has been retained in the activated sludge process.

Slugs: Intermittent releases or discharges of industrial wastes.

Soluble: Matter or compounds capable of dissolving into a solution.

Soluble BOD: Soluble BOD is the BOD of water that has been filtered in the standard suspended solids test.

Solution: A liquid mixture of dissolved substances, displaying no phase separation. Specific gravity: Weight of a particle, substance or chemical solution in relation to an equal volume of water.

Spec. Sheet: Specification Sheet. Detailed information of a product including, tests, color, odor, specific gravity, bacterial strains, other major ingredients, etc.

Surface media: Captures particles on the upstream surface with efficiencies in excess of depth media, sometimes close to 100% with minimal or no off-loading. Commonly rated according to the smallest particle the media can repeatedly capture. Examples of surface media include ceramic media, microporous membranes, synthetic woven screening media and in certain cases, wire cloth. The media characteristically has a narrow pore size distribution. Surface resistivity (W/o): Expressed in ohms/square. It is numerically equal to the resistance between two electrodes forming opposite sides of a square on the surface of a material. The size of the square is irrelevant. For conductive materials, surface resistivity is the ratio of the volume resistivity to the fabric thickness (r/t).

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