The following references include Web sites that you can refer to for specific properties and discussions of applications of alum.
1. Liquid Aluminum Sulfate (Viscosity of aqueous solutions of liquid alum [A12(S04)2-14.3 H20] at different temperatures), go to the following web site: http ://www.ecoservices.us.rhodia.com/alum.asp.
2. Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada - Standards of Sulphite Waste Liquor, C-3, Jan. 68. Viscosity of Sulphite Waste Liquor, C-4,Jan. 68.; F-2, Nov. 70. Wire Screening, F-3, July 92. Alum Solutions, F-4, Jan. 68, http://www .paptac.ca/english/engdatsh.htm.
3. The Role of Alum in Historical Papermaking ... and other Polyvalent Metals on the Viscosity of Gelatin Solutions." Journal of the Science of Food ... WF et al. "The Effect of Alum and pH on Sheet Acidity", go to the following web site: http://palimpsest.stanford.edu
4. Production of Alum From Awaso Bauxite. Go to the following web site: http://home.att.net/ ~ africantech/GhlE/Awasol .htm
5. GARNET - WEDC/publications/wares. Discusses soda ash and alum solutions. Go to the following web site: http://www.lboro.ac.uk
6. UCL Crystallization Research Group Publications : Composition, density and viscosity of saturated solutions", Go to the following web site for information: http: //www. ucl. ac. uk/ ~ ucec02j/Xtn_pubs .htm.
7. Montgomery College, Maryland - contains diagrams, surface tension, viscosity, intermolecular forces, types, vapor pressure of solutions and colligative properties. Also covers the synthesis of alum crystals. Go to the following web site: http://www.mc.cc.md.us/Departments/chemrv/chl01 .htm
8. Discussion on Cd(II) from Aqueous Solutions by Fungal Adsorbents and Sludge Conditioning, http://poai3.ev.nctu.edu
9. Cheremisinoff, N. P. and P. N. Cheremisinoff, Filtration Equipment for Wastewater Treatment, Prentice Hall Publishers, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1993.
The following references are Web sites that you can refer to for specific properties and discussions of applications of diatomaceous earth.
10. What is Diatomaceous Earth? How does it worK? - Hydroponics ... Diatomaceous Earth has a unique combination of physical properties: High Porosity: Up to eighty-five percent of the volume of Diatomaceous Earth is made up of ... http://www.hydromall.com/happy_growerl6.html
11. Results Diatomaceous Earth Insect Control ... the proven long-term insect control properties of White Mountain's proprietary brand of diatomaceous earth (DI-ATOMATE ) with the "instant gratification" of an ... http: //www. whitemountainnatural. com/results. html
12. Diatomaceous Earth ... then it couldn't have any significant insecticidal properties and would be labeled as something other than diatomaceous earth. http://froebuck.home.texas.net/toppage7.htm
13. Evaluation of Diatomaceous Earth Topdressing for Cyanobacterial are available, such as diatomaceous earth (DE), which is also called diatomite. Information is available regarding the physical properties of DE (Koskiand ... http://www.mafes.msstate.edu/pubs/bl079.html
14. Mervat S. Hassan, Ibrahim A. Ibrahim and Ismail S. Ismail - poor due to the general high level of impurities. Technologic properties of diatomaceous earth was significantly improved due to upgrading of diatoms through ... http://www.salty2k.com/sse/abstracts/vol7/hassanetal2v7.html [More Results From: www.salty2k.com]
15. Daitomaceous Earth ... Loss on ignition, 11.50. Diatomaceous Earth -Physical Properties. Bulk Density, 0.26 gm/cc. Temperature Resistance, 1400 DC. ... http://www.infoindia.com/uff/daito.html
16. GCSAA - GCM July 2000 - Soil amendments affect turf... five days (9). To improve water-holding properties, another team recommended the use of diatomaceous earth as an amendment to sand (8). However, another report... http://www.gcsaa.org/gcm/2000/july00/07soil.html
You can refer to the following references for more details onflocculants.
17. Johnson, K. M., 1996. Ind Water Treatment, 28, p. 24
18. Dahlstrom, D. A., 1990. Ind Eng Chem Res, 29, p.1020-1025
19. Moody, G. M., 1994. In Selection and Scale - Up for Solid/Liquid Separation, The Filtration Society 30th Anniversary Symposium, p.9-29
20. Moody, G. M. and McColl, P., 1997. In Proceedings of Filtech Europa Conference, The Filtration Society, Dusseldorf, Germany, p.393-406
21. Ramsden, D. K., Hughes, J. and Weir, S., 1998. Biotech Tech, 8, p.599.
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