Disinfection has received increased attention over the past several years from regulatory agencies through the establishment and enforcement of rigid bacteriological effluent standards. In upgrading existing wastewater treatment facilities, the need for improved disinfection as well as the elimination of odor problems are frequently encountered. Adequate and reliable disinfection is essential in ensuring that wastewater treatment plants are both environmentally safe and aesthetically acceptable to the public. Chlorine is the most widely used disinfectant in water and wastewater treatment. It is used to destroy pathogens, control nuisance microorganisms, and for oxidation. As an oxidant, chlorine is used in iron and manganese removal, for destruction of taste and odor compounds, and in the elimination of ammonia nitrogen. It is, however, a highly toxic substance and recently concerns have been raised over handling practices and possible residual effects of chlorination.
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