Bacillus- Bacterium with an elongated, rod shape.

Bacteria: Living organisms, microscopic in size, which usually consist of a single cell. Most bacteria use organic matter for their food and produce waste products as a result of their life processes.

Bacteriochlorophyll- Light-absorbing pigment found in green sulfur and purple sulfur bacteria.

Bacteriocin- Agent produced by certain bacteria that inhibits or kills closely related isolates and species.

Bacteriophage- Virus that infects bacteria, often with destruction or lysis of the host cell.

Bacterial Photosynthesis: A light-dependent, anaerobic mode of metabolism. Carbon dioxide is reduced to glucose, which is used for both biosynthesis and energy production. Depending on the hydrogen source used to reduce C02, both photolithotrophic and photoorganotrophic reactions exist in bacteria. Bacteroid- Altered form of cells of certain bacteria. Refers particularly to the swollen, irregular vacuolated cells of rhizobia in nodules of legumes. Base: A substance which dissociates (separates) in aqueous solution to yield hydroxyl ions, or one containing hydroxyl ions (OH-) which reacts with an acid to form a salt or which may react with metal to form a precipitate. Base composition- Proportion of the total bases consisting of guanine plus cytosine or thymine plus adenine base pairs. Usually expressed as a guanine + cytosine (G + C) value, e.g. 60% G+C.

Basidioma (plural, basidiomata)- Fruiting body that produces basidia; also termed a basidiocarp.

Basidiospore- Spore resulting from karyogamy and meiosis that are formed on a basidium that usually is formed on a basidium. Sexual spore of the Basidiomycota.

Basidium (plural, basidia)- Clublike cell of the sexual state formed by fungi in the phylum Basidiomycota.

Batch process: A treatment process in which a tank or reactor is filled, the wastewater (or solution) is treated or a chemical solution is prepared and the tank is emptied. The tank may then be filled and the process repeated. Batch processes are also used to cleanse, stabilize or condition chemical solutions for use in industrial manufacturing and treatment processes.

Bench scale analysis: Also known as: "bench test". A method of studying different ways of treating wastewater and solids on a small scale in a laboratory. Alken-Murray offers several such test kits including: Aiken Clear-Flo® Bench Test 1 and Aiken PCB Bench Test.

Benzene: An aromatic hydrocarbon which is a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid. Benzene is obtained chiefly from coal tar and is used as a solvent for resins and fats in dye manufacture.

Binary fission: During binary fission, a single cell divides transversely to form two new cells called daughter cells. Both daughter cells contain an exact copy of th geneticinformation contained in the parent cell.

Biocatalysis: Chemical reactions mediated by biological systems (microbial communities, whole organisms or cells, cell-free extracts, or purified enzymes aka catalytic proteins).

Binary fission- Division of one cell into two cells by the formation of a septum. It is the most common form of cell division in bacteria.

Binomial nomenclature- System of having two names, genus and specific epithet, for each organism.

Bioaccumulation-Accumulation of a chemical substance in living tissue.

Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)- Amount of dissolved oxygen consumed in five days by biological processes breaking down organic matter.

Biodegradable- Substance capable of being decomposed by biological processes.

Biofilm: A slime layer which naturally develops when bacteria attach to an inert support that is made of a material such as stone, metal, or wood. There are also non-filamentous bacteria that will produce an extracellular polysaccharide that acts as a natural glue to immobilize the cells. In nature, nonfilament-forming microorganisms will stick to the biofilm surface, locating within an area of the biofilm that provides an optimal growth environment (i.e., pH, dissolved oxygen, nutrients). Since nutrients tend to concentrate on solid surfaces, a microorganism saves energy through cell adhesion to a solid surface rather than by growing unattached and obtaining nutrients randomly from the medium. Pseudomonas and Nitrosomonas strains are especially well known for their ability to form a strong biofilm.

Bioflocculation: The clumping together of fine, dispersed organic particles by the action of certain bacteria and algae.

Biogeochemistry- Study of microbially mediated chemical transformations of geochemical interest, such as nitrogen or sulfur cycling. Biomagnification- Increase in the concentration of a chemical substance as it is progresses to higher trophic levels of a food chain.

Biomass: A mass or clump of living organisms feeding on the wastes in wastewater, dead organisms and other debris.

Bioremediation- Use of microorganisms to remove or detoxify toxic or unwanted

Biosolid- The resides of wastewater treatment. Formerly called sewage sludge. Biosphere- Zone incorporating all forms of life on earth. The biosphere extends from deep in sediment below the ocean to several thousand meters elevation in high

Biotrophic- Nutritional relationship between two organisms in which one or both must associate with the other to obtain nutrients and grow.

Biostimulation: Any process that increases the rates of biological degradation, usually by the addition of nutrients,oxygen, or other electron donors and acceptors so as to increase the number of indigenous microorganisms available for

Biosynthesis- Production of needed cellular constituents from other, usually

Biotechnology- Use of living organisms to carry out defined physiochemical processes having industrial or other practical application.

Biotic potential: All the factors that contribute to a species increasing its number.

BOD: Biochemical Oxygen Demand - the rate at which microorganisms use the oxygen in water or wastewater while stabilizing decomposable organic matter under aerobic conditions. In decomposition, organic matter serves as food for the bacteria

BOD test: A procedure that measures the rate of oxygen use under controlled conditions of time and temperature. Standard test conditions include dark incubation

Bolting cloth (silk): Screens woven of twisted multifilament natural silk. Bolting grade (wire cloth): Weaves that are uniformly woven of stainless steel to provide high strength and the largest possible pore openings.

Bio-Tower: An attached culture system. A tower filled with a media similar to rächet or plastic rings in which air and water are forced up a counterflow movement

Blinding: The clogging of the filtering medium of a microscreen or a vacuum filter when the holes or spaces in the media become sealed off due to a buildup of grease

Brown rot fungus: Fungus that attacks cellulose and hemicellulose in wood, leaving dark-colored lignin and phenolic materials behind.

Bubble point test: A test to determine the maximum pore size opening of a filter. Buffer: A solution or liquid whose chemical makeup neutralizes acids or bases without a great change in pH.

Bulk density, soil - Mass of dry soil per unit bulk volume (combined volume of soil solids and pore space).

Bulked yarn: A yarn that has been geometrically changed to give it the appearance of having greater volume than a conventional yarn of the same linear density. Bulking sludge: Clouds of billowing sludge that occur throughout secondary clarifiers and sludge thickeners when sludge becomes too light and will not settle properly. In the activated sludge process, bulking is usually caused by filamentous bacteria.

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