Reactions for Hydrogen Cation Exchanger Resins Regeneration Reactions

Calcium, Magnesium and or Sodium-Cation Exchanger (Insoluble) + Sulfuric Acid (Soluble) Hydrogen Cation Exchanger (Insoluble) + Calcium, Magnesium and or Sodium Sulfates (Soluble). Reactions for Hydrogen Cation-Exchanger Resins -Reactions with Sulfates or Chlorides Ca, Mg, Na2 S04, Cl2 + H2Z Ca, Mg, Na2 Z + H2S04 or HCl Calcium, Magnesium and or Sodium as Sulfates and or Chlorides (Soluble) + Hydrogen Cation Exchanger (Insoluble) Calcium, Magnesium and or Sodium-Cation Exchanger (Insoluble) +...

Cake Filtration Equipment

Vacuum Rotary Drum Filter Sketch

There are three general categories of filters used. These are Clarifying Filters - Usually cartridge-type or bag filters designed to remove small amounts of particles from a solution. Laboratory personnel typically use these types of filters. These types of filters are also used for 0.2 micron terminal sterilization. Cross low Filters - These are usually membrane-type filters used for ultrafiltration. In the field of biotechnology these types of filters are used in ultrafiltration devices used...

Water Quality Test Methods

Determination of the bacteriological quality of water is not a straightforward analysis. The testing for a specific pathogenic bacteria can often lead to erroneous conclusions. Analyses for pathogenic bacteria are difficult to perform. In general, data are not quantitatively reproducible. As an example, if Salmonella was found to be absent from a water sample, this does not exclude the possible presence of Shigella, Vibrio, or disease-producing viruses. The bacteriological quality of water is...

Granular Media Filtration

Granular Media Filtration Photos

Granular media filtration is used for treating aqueous waste streams. The filter media consists of a bed of granular particles (typically sand or sand with anthracite or coal). The anthracite has adsorptive characteristics and hence can be beneficial in removing some biological and chemical contaminants in the wastewater. This material may also be substituted for activated charcoal. The bed is contained within a basin and is supported by an underdrain system which allows the filtered liquid to...