Unit Operations of Water and Wastewater Treatment

Chapter 3 Flow Measurements and Flow and Quality Equalizations

3.1 Flow Meters

3.1.1 Rectangular Weirs

3.1.2 Triangular Weirs

3.1.3 Trapezoidal Weirs

3.1.4 Venturi Meters

3.1.5 Parshall Flumes

3.2 Miscellaneous Flow Meters

3.3 Liquid Level Indicators

3.4 Flow and Quality Equalizations Glossary

Symbols Problems Bibliography

Chapter 4 Pumping

4.1 Pumping Stations and Types of Pumps

4.2 Pumping Station Heads

4.2.1 Total Developed Head

4.2.2 Inlet and Outlet Manometric Heads; Inlet and Outlet Dynamic Heads

4.3 Pump Characteristics and Best Operating Efficiency

4.4 Pump Scaling Laws

4.5 Pump Specific Speed

4.6 Net Positive Suction Head and Deep-Well Pumps

4.7 Pumping Station Head Analysis Glossary

Symbols Problems Bibliography

Chapter 5 Screening, Settling, and Flotation

5.1 Screening

5.1.1 Head Losses in Screens and Bar Racks

5.1.2 Head Loss in Microstrainers

5.2 Settling

5.2.1 Flow-Through Velocity and Overflow Rate of Settling Basins

5.2.2 Discrete Settling

5.2.3 Outlet Control of Grit Channels

5.2.4 Flocculent Settling

5.2.5 Primary Settling and Water-Treatment Sedimentation Basins

5.2.6 Zone Settling

5.2.7 Secondary Clarification and Thickening 5.3 Flotation

5.3.1 Laboratory Determination of Design Parameters Glossary Symbols Problems Bibliography

Chapter 6 Mixing and Flocculation

6.1 Rotational Mixers

6.1.1 Types of Impellers

6.1.2 Prevention of Swirling Flow

6.1.3 Power Dissipation in Rotational Mixers

6.2 Criteria for Effective Mixing

6.3 Pneumatic Mixers

6.3.1 Prediction of Number of Bubbles and Rise Velocity

6.3.2 Power Dissipation in Pneumatic Mixers

6.4 Hydraulic Mixers

6.4.1 Power Dissipation in Hydraulic Mixers

6.4.2 Mixing Power for Hydraulic Jumps

6.4.3 Volume and Detention Times of Hydraulic-Jump Mixers

6.4.4 Mixing Power for Weir Mixers

6.5 Flocculators Glossary Symbols Problems Bibliography

Chapter 7 Conventional Filtration

7.1 Types of Filters

7.2 Medium Specification for Granular Filters

7.3 Linear Momentum Equation Applied to Filters

7.4 Head Losses in Grain Filters

7.4.1 Clean-Filter Head Loss

7.4.2 Head Losses Due to Deposited Materials

7.5 Backwashing Head Loss in Granular Filters

7.6 Cake Filtration

7.6.1 Determination of a

7.6.2 Design Cake Filtration Equation

7.6.3 Determination of Cake Filtration Parameters Glossary

Symbols Problems Bibliography

Chapter 8 Advanced Filtration and Carbon Adsorption

8.1 Electrodialysis Membranes

8.1.1 Power Requirement of Electrodialysis Units

8.2 Pressure Membranes

8.2.1 Membrane Module Designs

8.2.2 Factors Affecting Solute Rejection and Breakthrough

8.2.3 Solute-Water Separation Theory

8.2.4 Types of Membranes

8.2.5 Membrane Performance Characterization

8.3 Carbon Adsorption

8.3.1 Activation Techniques

8.3.2 Adsorption Capacity

8.3.3 Determination of the Freundlich Constants

8.3.4 Determination of the Langmuir Constants

8.3.5 Bed Adsorption and Active Zone

8.3.6 Relative Velocities in Bed Adsorption

8.3.7 Head Losses in Bed Adsorption Glossary

Symbols Problems Bibliography

Chapter 9 Aeration, Absorption, and Stripping

9.1 Mass Transfer Units

9.2 Interface for Mass Transfer, and Gas and Liquid Boundary Layers

9.3 Mathematics of Mass Transfer

9.4 Dimensions of the Overall Mass Transfer Coefficients

9.5 Mechanics of Aeration

9.5.1 Equipment Specification

9.5.2 Determination of Aeration Parameters

9.5.3 Calculation of Actual Oxygen Requirement, the AOR

9.5.4 Time of Contact

9.5.5 Sizing of Aeration Basins and Relationship to Contact Time

9.5.6 Contact for Bubble Aerators

9.6 Absorption and Stripping

9.6.1 Sizing of Absorption and Stripping Towers

9.6.2 Operating Line

9.6.3 Tower Height

9.6.4 Ammonia Stripping (or Absorption) Glossary

Symbols Problems Bibliography

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