As we learned from the previous discussions of the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act, more advanced and sophisticated technologies are needed for the more stringent requirements in meeting the water quality standards and drinking water standards. It is no longer sufficient that empirical knowledge be used in treating water and wastewater. It is true that, armed with an empirical knowledge, an engineer can proceed to design unit operations and unit processes that will treat a certain contaminant. But to advance to the next level of sophistication in treatment, an understanding of the underlying concept of the processes is important and, certainly, would be necessary. For example, how do we economically remove trihalomethanes? How about radionuclides and the 83 contaminants specified in the 1986 amendments of the Safe Drinking Water Act? This book therefore presents the fundamental concepts of the unit operations and unit processes used in the treatment of water and wastewater. The authors hope to enlighten engineers and other professionals, who are engaged in water and wastewater treatment practice, with the ability to answer not only the how but also the why of the physical and chemical treatment of water and wastewater. It is, therefore, by necessity, analytical in nature.
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