O

RC-OR' General formula for esters where R' is one hydrocarbon group and R is another

R-OH General formula are called alcohols

TOC Total organic carbon

VOC Volatile organic compound

X Volume of the seeded dilution water mixed with the sample

Y Volume of blank problems

2.1 Name as many chemical characteristics as you can for characterizing a wastewater.

2.2 What is biochemical oxygen demand?

2.3 From previous experience, the BOD5 of a given type of sample is 180 mg/L. What percentage dilution should be used to analyze this sample?

2.4 From previous experience, the BOD5 of a given type of sample is 180 mg/L. How many milliliters of this sample should be pippetted into a 300-mL BOD bottle?

2.5 In BOD analysis, what ions are used to maintain osmotic pressure?

2.6 From previous experience, the BOD5 of a given type of sample is 180 mg/L. What percentage dilution should be used to analyze this sample?

2.7 From past experiences on BOD work, what is the lowest concentration of dissolved oxygen allowed in the BOD bottle and what is the lowest oxygen depletion of oxygen allowed to have accurate results?

2.8 A ten-milliliter sample is pipetted directly into a 300-mL incubation bottle. The initial DO of the diluted sample is 9.0 mg/L and its final DO is 2.0 mg/L. The dilution water is incubated in a 200-mL bottle, and the initial and final DOs are, respectively, 9.0 and 8.0 mg/L. If the sample and the dilution water is incubated at 20°C for five days, what is the BOD5 of the sample at this temperature?

2.9 Solve Problem 2.8 if the volume of the incubation bottle is 200 mL.

2.10 A BOD test is to be conducted on a poultry waste known to contain 650 mg/L of BOD5. (a) What sample portion should be used in the test? (b) Estimate the BOD5 if the initial DO in both the diluted sample and the seed is 8.5 mg/L and at the end of five days, the DOs are 3.0 and 5.0 mg/L for the sample and seed, respectively.

2.11 Calculate the BOD5 of a domestic sewage with the following laboratory results: sample portion added to 300-mL bottle = 6.5 mL, initial DO = 8.0 mg/L, final DO = 4.5 mg/L. What is the ultimate oxygen demand assuming kc = 0.1 per day?

2.12 The deoxygenation coefficient to the base 10 for a certain waste is 0.1 per day. What fraction is BOD5 to CBOD of this waste?

2.13 What is the difference between nonfiltrable and suspended solids?

2.14 State all the various fixed and volatile solids.

2.15 Volatile suspended solids analysis is run on a sample. The tare mass of the crucible and filter is 55.3520 g. A sample of 260 mL is then filtered and the residue dried and decomposed at 600°C to drive off the volatile matter. Assume the filter does not decompose at this temperature. After decomposition, the constant weight of the crucible and the residue was determined and was found to be equal to 30.3415 g. What is the volatile suspended solids if the total suspended solids is 142 mg/L?

2.16 Define pH and pOH.

2.17 What does concentration in terms of activities mean?

2.18 Assuming the temperature is 25°C, calculate the concentration of the other ion indicated by a question mark.

2.19 What chemical is normally used in the determination of COD?

2.20 Define oxidation state.

2.21 What is Kjeldahl and total nitrogen?

2.22 What are the three types of phosphorus encountered in wastewater?

2.23 What is an amphoteric substance?

2.24 What are triglycerides?

2.25 What are fatty alcohols?

2.26 What are complex and simple lipids?

2.27 Back River Sewage Treatment Plant of Baltimore, MD, discharges to the Back River estuary. The State of Maryland imposes on its permit a total phosphorus limitation of 2.0 mg/L. Assuming all the total phosphorus converts to orthophosphorus and assuming the dilution effect of the estuary cannot be neglected, calculate the concentration of algae theoretically expected.

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