O

Organic acids—Organic compounds with the general formula RC-OH, where R is a hydrocarbon group.

Organic nitrogen—The nitrogen content in protein of an organic matter.

Organic phosphorus—The phosphorus content of organic matter.

Orthophosphates—The ions and salts of the three phosphoric acid dissociation products: dihydrogen phosphates containing the H2PO4 ion, hydrogen phosphate containing the HPO4 ion, and the phosphates containing the

PO434 ion.

Oxidation state—A measure of the degree of affinity of the atom to the electrons it shares with other atoms.

pH—The negative of the logarithm to the base 10 of the hydrogen ion activity expressed in gmols per liter.

Phosphoglycerides—Products formed from the reaction of glycerol, phosphoric acid, and fatty acids.

pOH—The negative of the logarithm to the base 10 of the hydroxide ion activity expressed in gmols per liter

Population—The total set of measurements of interest in a particular problem.

POTWs—Publicly owned treatment works.

Polyphosphates—Another term for condensed phosphates.

Presumptive test—A test for the coliform group where evolution of gases within 24 to 48 ± 3 hours when samples are incubated at 35° ± 0.5°C assumes the presence of the microorganisms.

Procaryotes—Protists that do not contain chromosomes; they do not have true nucleus.

Protozoa—Single-cell protist one step above the bacteria in the trophic level.

Protist—A third kingdom of the living things that do not have cell specialization to perform specific cell functions as in the higher forms of life. They include protozoa, fungi, algae, and bacteria.

Pyrophosphoric acid—Another name for dipolyphosphoric acid.

Random variable—A function dependent on chance and whose values are real numbers.

Salmonella typhosa—Pathogenic bacterium that causes typhoid fever.

Sample—A subset of the population that contains measurements obtained by an experiment.

Shigella flexneri—Pathogenic bacterium that causes bacillary dysentery.

Settleable solids—The fraction of solids produced after settling for 30 minutes in a cone-shaped vessel called an Imhoff cone.

Simple lipids—The fatty alcohols.

Sludge volume index (SVI)—The volume of solids that settled, in milliliters, divided by the corresponding grams of solids mass.

Spirillum—A spiral organism whose long axis remains rigid when in motion.

Spirochete—An organism whose long axis bends when in motion.

Surfactants—Surface-active agents, which means that they have the property of interacting with surfaces.

Suspended solids—Solids retained on the filter.

Total nitrogen—The sum of the organic, free ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate nitrogens.

Total solids—Materials left after water has been evaporated from a sample.

Total suspended solids—The nonfiltrable solids.

Triglycerides or triacylglycerides—Fats and oils formed from the reaction of glycerol with the fatty acids.

Triol—An alcohol with three OH groups.

Tripolyphosphoric acid—A condensed phosphate of the formula H5P3O10.

Ultimate BOD, BODu—BOD obtained after a long period of incubation such as 20 to 30 days.

Ultimate carbonaceous BOD or CBOD—A BODu with the ammonia reaction inhibited.

Vibrio—A comma-shaped microorganism.

Virion—A unit of viral particle tightly packed inside a protein coat.

Virus—A submicroscopic agent of infectious disease that requires a living cell for its multiplication.

VOCs—Volatile organic compounds.

Volatile solids—Portions of the various forms of solids that disappear when the sample is decomposed at 600°C.

Waxes—Esters of simple lipids and fatty acids.

Zygote—Cell formed by the union of two gametes.

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