nonpolar regions, while the peptide bonds _c-nh- and the amines [-NH2] are polar regions. In the NS-100, nonpolar regions exceed the polar regions; hence, this membrane is said to be apolar.

The CA membrane contains the OH- and the acetyl [ CH3CO-] groups. The OH- region exceeds the acetyl region in the membrane. OH- is polar, while the acetyl group is nonpolar regions. Since the OH- region exceeds the acetyl region, CA membranes are polar. The polarity or apolarity of any membrane is very important in characterizing its property to reject solutes.

Polyethylene amine reacted with isophthaloyl chloride produces the PA-100 membrane as shown in the following reaction:

(CH2CH2NH)nCH2CH2NH + 2 Polyethylene amine

(CH2CH2NH)nCH2CH2NH + 2 Polyethylene amine


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