O Advanced Filtration and Carbon Adsorption

This chapter continues the discussion on filtration started in Chapter 7, except that it deals with advanced filtration. We have defined filtration as a unit operation of separating solids or particles from fluids. A unit operation of filtration carried out using membranes as filter media is advanced filtration. This chapter discusses advanced filtration using electrodialysis membranes and pressure membranes. Filtration using pressure membranes include reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, microfiltration, and ultrafiltration.

In addition to advanced filtration, this chapter also discusses carbon adsorption. This is a unit operation that uses the active sites in powdered, granular, and fibrous activated carbon to remove impurities from water and wastewater. Carbon adsorption and filtration share some similar characteristics. For example, head loss calculations and backwashing calculations are the same. Carbon adsorption will be discussed as the last part of this chapter.

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