Modes Of Removal Of Iron And Manganese

The best place to investigate for determining the mode by which the elements can be removed is the table of solubility products constants as shown in Table 13.1. In general, a precipitation product that has the lowest Ksp means that the substance is the most insoluble. As shown in the table, for iron, the lowest Ksp is that of Fe(OH)3, an Fe(III) iron, and has the value of 1.1(10—38). For manganese, the lowest K is that

of MnS, an Mn(II) manganese, and has the value of 1.1(10 ).

These Ksp's indicate that the elements must be removed in the form of ferric hydroxide and manganese sulfide, respectively; however, from the table, manganese can also be removed as Mn(OH)2 at a Ksp = 4.5(10—14). Of course, lime has many uses, while sulfide has only few. Sodium sulfide is used in photographic film development; however, lime is used in water and wastewater treatment, as an industrial chemical, as well as being used in agriculture. Thus, because of its varied use, lime is much cheaper. In addition, using a sulfide to remove iron and manganese would be a new method. Its health effect when found in drinking water is not documented. On the other hand, lime has been used for years. We will therefore use lime as the precipitant for the removal of iron and manganese. The probable use of sulfide in removing iron and manganese could be a topic for investigation in applied research.

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