K2

KCaCO3c K CaHCO3 c KCaOHc

K CaSO4c K.p

Ksp, CaCO3 KT1 KT 2 Kw

Subscript symbol for "aqueous"

Total molar concentration of species containing the calcium atom Molar concentration of the calcium ion

Calcium ion concentration after occurrence of precipitation potential Calcium ion concentration before occurrence of precipitation potential

Precipitation potential of the calcium ion Precipitation potential of CaCO3 Carbonate complex of calcium ion Bicarbonate complex of calcium ion Hydroxide complex of calcium ion

Moles of carbon dioxide per unit volume of flow required to bring the pH of water to the saturation pH Sulfate complex of calcium ion

Moles of base per unit volume of flow required to bring the pH of water to the saturation pH

Change in concentration of carbonic acid needed to lower actual pH to the saturation pH

Mixture of CO2 in water, CO2(a?), and H2CO3; carbonic acid Standard enthalpy change

Standard enthalpy change at 25°C and unit of activity Saturation hydrogen ion concentration corresponding to the saturation pH

Equilibrium constant Ionization constant of H2CO3 Ionization constant of the bicarbonate ion Equilibrium constant of CaCO3 Equilibrium constant of CaHCO+ Equilibrium constant of CaOH+ Equilibrium constant of CaSO4 Solubility product constant K.p of CaCO3

Equilibrium constant at temperature T1 Equilibrium constant at temperature T2 Ion product of water l

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