Dwu

CaCO c

CaCO3s ^ CaCO3 Ksp,CaCO?

Note: When adding the equations, the respective equilibrium constants are multiplied. The activity of a solid is equal to unity.

Therefore,

VK CaCO cJ

7CaCO3c K CaCO3c

The activity coefficient YcaƓ3c of CaCO3 is unity, since it is not dissociated. The determination of [ CaHCO+] will use, in addition to the equilibrium constant for CaCO3(s), the ionization constant for the bicarbonate ion, K3. The steps are as follows:

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