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Example 10.3 In the previous example, (a) determine the ionic composition of the finished water and (b) show that the cations and anions are balanced. Assume the temperature is 25°C such that Ksp,HCO3 is recarbonated.

Solution:

= 10 . Also, assume that the effluent

Recarbonation will transform the 15.0 mg/L as CaC03 of carbonate ions from the limit of technology to 15.0 mg/L as CaC03 of bicarbonate ions. From the order of removal, these carbonate ions will be coming solely from the removal of the raw calcium bicarbonate. The carbonate ions coming from the use of soda ash to form calcium carbonate will not be accounted for in this limit of technology consideration, since by the time they are formed, the water is already saturated with the carbonate coming from the removal of the raw calcium bicarbonate.

Therefore, f CaHCO3 = 1 - 1525 = 0.90 f Ca = 1 Mr CaHCO3 = 5065.63 kg/d

Therefore,

25,000

25,000

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