Mr is also equal to 2-{As8pp(XIM)ult}, where As is the superficial area of the bed, pp is the packed density of the carbon bed, and the others are as defined before. Combining with the previous equation and solving for 8,

To use this equation for the determination of the active zone length, in practice, a breakthrough experiment is conducted. Breakthrough volumes and concentrations as depicted in Figure 8.9b are recorded. From the data, S may be calculated using the previous equation. It is important that the rate of application of the influent be recorded, as the length of S is dependent upon this flow rate. The faster the rate of application, the longer the length of S, and the slower the rate of application, the shorter the length of S.

Example 8.7 A breakthrough experiment is conducted for phenol producing the results in the following table. Determine the length S of the active zone. The diameter of the column used is 2.54 cm, and the packed density of the bed is 721.58 kg/m3. [Co] is equal to 25 mg/L. X/M = 0.020 kg/kg.

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