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chemical reaction are equal. From the reaction, the equivalent masses will then be calculated. Once this is done, equations for chemical requirements can be derived.

12.9.1 Chemical Requirements in Alum Coagulation Treatment

The water of hydration for alum varies from 13 to 18. For the purposes of calculating the chemical requirements, this range of values will be designated by x. In actual applications, the correct value of x must be obtained from the label of the container used to ship the chemical. Using x as the water of hydration, the chemical reaction for alum is

Al2(S04)3 • xH20 + 3Ca(HC03)2 ^ 2Al(0H)31 + 6C02 + 3CaS04 + xH20

The rationale behind the previous reaction is explained here. The bicarbonate is known to act as a base as well as an acid. As a base, its interaction is HCO3_ + H2O ^ H2C03 + 0H_ ^ C02 + H20 + 0H_. The Ksp of aluminum hydroxide is approx-

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